Hoppa till innehåll

Roma/Rome /Рим

Mirco

Roma/Rome /Рим

Sightseeing
What are the best things to do in Rome? The beauties of Rome sprawl across its landscape and are a compelling blend of the ancient with the Renaissance. Classically imposing are the Colosseum and the Roman Forum while the austere exterior of the Pantheon belies its stunning interior. St Peter's Square and Basilica are Renaissance masterpieces while gloriously ornate fountains and statues greet you at every twist and turn of the city's streets. The most iconic example is Salvi's Trevi Fountain. Dominating the small cobbled avenue in which it sits, this fountain is an outrageous example of over-the-top Baroque sculpture, and is immediately recognisable from its appearance in classic films such as 'Three Coins in a Fountain' and Federico Fellini's screen masterpiece, 'La Dolce Vita'. When you enter Rome's churches, cathedrals, museums, and galleries you'll find awe-inspiring paintings and sculptures that cover all the eras and great names of Western art. These range from Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling to frescoes by Raphael and paintings that show the skill of Caravaggio to the glorious fountains of Bernini. A trip to Rome, though, encompasses much more than a stroll through art and architecture. Sipping a coffee or aperitif in street cafes, or enjoying a glass of beer while you take in the vistas from terraces and piazzas are just as much a part of the tourist experience in this most romantic of cities. It's easy to while away a whole day in The Vatican City, west of the River Tiber. When you do, you're entering the world's smallest state. Cross the Tiber and pass the imposing might of the Castel Sant'Angelo before entering the Vatican along the Via Della Conciliazione. At the end, the vastness of St. Peter's Square with its grand Bernini colonnade and central obelisk opens up before you. Across the square is St. Peter's Basilica topped by the tallest dome in the world. Taking the stairs or elevator to the viewing gallery is a must for splendid views of the Eternal City. While it's easy to fill a visit to Rome with the cultural wonders found in every guidebook, it also has a secret side. Some of the city's population of wild cats live pampered lives at the Torre Argentina excavation site, happily posing for the cameras of passers-by while the French-style gardens of Doria Pamphili near the Trastevere district are often overlooked by visitors. The final resting place of the English Romantics, Shelley and Keats is in Rome. They lie in the beautiful Protestant cemetery on Via Caio Cestio. With its grand marble monuments, it provides a peaceful respite from the city bustle. What is the best time of year to visit Rome? Rome is a popular tourist destination right around the year so use our travel tips to help plan your visit. In August, many locals take their vacations and head to the coast, so although the city is quieter be prepared for some neighbourhood shops and restaurants to be closed. Easter's Holy Week is always a busy period so booking your hotel well in advance is advisable. With most museums closed on Mondays, the Vatican museums closed on Sundays, and the city filling up with short-break visitors every weekend, be flexible with your travel plans and visit from Tuesday to Friday. Not only museums and visitor attractions, but cafes and restaurants will be slightly less crowded. What is the weather and climate like in Rome? Try and avoid the summer months when temperatures rarely dip below 30°C. In contrast, the ideal months for getting the most out of Rome's cafes and terraces are April, May, September, and October. To really beat the crowds, though, think about visiting during the winter months. You'll need a warm coat and probably an umbrella, but temperatures never dip below freezing.
A little history of St. Peter's Basilica The history of the St. Peter's Basilica begins in the 4th century when the Emperor Constantine decides to build a basilica where the apostle had been buried. In 329 the construction of the basilica was completed. The church was used for the celebration of the cult, as a covered cemetery and as a funeral banquet room. During the High Middle Ages it was the main pilgrimage site in the West. The archaeological excavations carried out under the present basilica, the descriptions, drawings and ancient paintings give us an idea of what the first Vatican basilica was like. In 1506 Julius II begins the construction of a new basilica replacing the existing one, commissioning to the architect Donato Bramante. Bramante proposes a plant in Greek cross (four equal arms), like the Byzantine churches of 9th century. When Bramante passed away in 1514, the works passed to Rafael Sanzio and several proposals were discussed until 1521. Rafael died in 1520 and construction continues with Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, who in 1538 concretizes his project for the basilica. In 1546, at the death of Antonio da Sangallo, the architect named was Michelangelo Buonarroti who will give the definitive shape to the design, simplifying the plant by eliminating the sacristies with towers of the corners of the square designed by Bramante; this transformed the outer limits of the area into a continuous surrounding wall giving unity and coherence to the volume of the building. Michelangelo reinforced the structure since the axis of his idea was the erection of an imposing canted dome, on an important drum, that would raise much more than the original proposal of Bramante. Its construction was completed twenty-four years after his death by Domingo Fontana and Jacobo della Porta. The latter was in charge of concluding the project of Michelangelo and when dying in 1602 was only to erect the facade and design the square. Pope Paul V decided to extend the church to the front with the architect Carlo Maderno, transforming the plant of Greek cross by Bramante in a plant in Latin cross, traditional of the churches of the West. Maderno prolongs the vault of the front arm placing on both sides a series of chapels covered with oval domes and in the exterior continues the wall designed by Michelangelo highlighting the front with great attached columns. The front was built between 1607 and 1612. In 1624, Juan Lorenzo Bernini, is called to realize the canopy that constitutes the major altar and that by tradition should be located in the center of the cross, on the tomb of the Apostle Peter, completed task in 1633. Since the death of Maderno in 1629, Bernini takes charge of the interior decoration of the whole church giving it its present appearance. What is the St. Peter's Basilica today? The St. Peter's Basilica is one of the largest buildings in the world and is the largest of the papal basilicas. At the moment the St. Peter's Basilica is a building that measures 218 meters of length and 136 meters of height including its dome. It has an area of 23,000 square meters. This basilica has been considered as an architectural work of great importance by the magnitude of its facade and by the quality of its work, annually receives people of diverse countries of the world who come to its interior to admire the best sculptures of the times and appreciate a work that has had centuries of construction. Curiosities of the St. Peter's Basilica Did you know that a million cubic meters of soil had to be removed to complete the excavation necessary for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica? The construction of the present St. Peter's Basilica was commissioned by Pope Julius II (1503-1513), but before that, there was another basilica built by Constantine in 319. At that time the newly converted emperor put an end to the persecution of the Christians and ordered the construction of a basilica that would bear the name of the first pope. The ideal place for this construction was the great circus of Nero but Constantine ordered that the basilica was constructed in the place where Saint Peter had been buried. Did you know that Michelangelo was only 24 years old when he sculpted The Pity (La Pietá) that is inside the St. Peter's Basilica? This work is worth to be seen closely to be able to appreciate the genius of this artist with his young age. In 1972 The Pity suffered attacks and since then is protected by a crystal. Did you know that Michelangelo was the one who designed the current uniforms of the Swiss Guard that protects the St. Peter's Basilica? Why visit St. Peter's Basilica? St. Peter's Basilica is located in Vatican City, and is the universal headquarters of the Catholic Church as well as the Pope's residence. The present Basilica, built on the Constantinian Basilica, is the expression of the will of the Popes of the Renaissance who, relying on great artists such as Bramante, Michelangelo, Bernini and Maderno take us on a journey through art, faith and spirituality where we can not only admire the magnificence of the building, but also walk through its corridors, visit the chapels and enjoy the beauty of numerous works of art, such as Michelangelo's Pity (La Pietá). At the moment it is possible to visit the tombs of the Popes located in the grottos of the Vatican, and it is possible to see the tomb of Saint Peter and its successors. How to visit St. Peter's Basilica? The entrance to the St. Peter's Basilica is free, but given the large number of visitors, it is advisable to book a guided tour to avoid the line. The options to visit are several: it is possible to book a group guided tour or a visit with an audio guide, it is also possible to combine the group visit of the Basilica to the tour of Vatican Museums and the Sistine Chapel or visit the Vatican Mosaic Studio. You can also book a private guide to visit it and combine this visit with other attractions. Finally, if you want to fully enjoy St. Peter's Square, you can visit it accompanied by a private guide who can also combine this visit with the Castel Sant'Angelo, which is not far away. Other attractions in the area Within walking distance of St. Peter's Basilica are the Vatican Museums, one of Rome's main tourist attractions. Inside are thousands of works of art collected over the years by the Catholic Church for more than five centuries. Leaving behind the Basilica of St. Peter and walking along the Conciliation Avenue (Via della Conciliazione), we find the Castel Sant'Angelo built during the time of the Emperor Hadrian as his personal mausoleum and of his family. Later, this building became a military building and was integrated into the Aurelian Wall in 403. From the 11th century the fort became property of the popes as it connected with the Vatican City by a fortified corridor called “Passetto”. A visit you can´t miss!
15
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
San Pietro
15
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
A little history of St. Peter's Basilica The history of the St. Peter's Basilica begins in the 4th century when the Emperor Constantine decides to build a basilica where the apostle had been buried. In 329 the construction of the basilica was completed. The church was used for the celebration of the cult, as a covered cemetery and as a funeral banquet room. During the High Middle Ages it was the main pilgrimage site in the West. The archaeological excavations carried out under the present basilica, the descriptions, drawings and ancient paintings give us an idea of what the first Vatican basilica was like. In 1506 Julius II begins the construction of a new basilica replacing the existing one, commissioning to the architect Donato Bramante. Bramante proposes a plant in Greek cross (four equal arms), like the Byzantine churches of 9th century. When Bramante passed away in 1514, the works passed to Rafael Sanzio and several proposals were discussed until 1521. Rafael died in 1520 and construction continues with Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, who in 1538 concretizes his project for the basilica. In 1546, at the death of Antonio da Sangallo, the architect named was Michelangelo Buonarroti who will give the definitive shape to the design, simplifying the plant by eliminating the sacristies with towers of the corners of the square designed by Bramante; this transformed the outer limits of the area into a continuous surrounding wall giving unity and coherence to the volume of the building. Michelangelo reinforced the structure since the axis of his idea was the erection of an imposing canted dome, on an important drum, that would raise much more than the original proposal of Bramante. Its construction was completed twenty-four years after his death by Domingo Fontana and Jacobo della Porta. The latter was in charge of concluding the project of Michelangelo and when dying in 1602 was only to erect the facade and design the square. Pope Paul V decided to extend the church to the front with the architect Carlo Maderno, transforming the plant of Greek cross by Bramante in a plant in Latin cross, traditional of the churches of the West. Maderno prolongs the vault of the front arm placing on both sides a series of chapels covered with oval domes and in the exterior continues the wall designed by Michelangelo highlighting the front with great attached columns. The front was built between 1607 and 1612. In 1624, Juan Lorenzo Bernini, is called to realize the canopy that constitutes the major altar and that by tradition should be located in the center of the cross, on the tomb of the Apostle Peter, completed task in 1633. Since the death of Maderno in 1629, Bernini takes charge of the interior decoration of the whole church giving it its present appearance. What is the St. Peter's Basilica today? The St. Peter's Basilica is one of the largest buildings in the world and is the largest of the papal basilicas. At the moment the St. Peter's Basilica is a building that measures 218 meters of length and 136 meters of height including its dome. It has an area of 23,000 square meters. This basilica has been considered as an architectural work of great importance by the magnitude of its facade and by the quality of its work, annually receives people of diverse countries of the world who come to its interior to admire the best sculptures of the times and appreciate a work that has had centuries of construction. Curiosities of the St. Peter's Basilica Did you know that a million cubic meters of soil had to be removed to complete the excavation necessary for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica? The construction of the present St. Peter's Basilica was commissioned by Pope Julius II (1503-1513), but before that, there was another basilica built by Constantine in 319. At that time the newly converted emperor put an end to the persecution of the Christians and ordered the construction of a basilica that would bear the name of the first pope. The ideal place for this construction was the great circus of Nero but Constantine ordered that the basilica was constructed in the place where Saint Peter had been buried. Did you know that Michelangelo was only 24 years old when he sculpted The Pity (La Pietá) that is inside the St. Peter's Basilica? This work is worth to be seen closely to be able to appreciate the genius of this artist with his young age. In 1972 The Pity suffered attacks and since then is protected by a crystal. Did you know that Michelangelo was the one who designed the current uniforms of the Swiss Guard that protects the St. Peter's Basilica? Why visit St. Peter's Basilica? St. Peter's Basilica is located in Vatican City, and is the universal headquarters of the Catholic Church as well as the Pope's residence. The present Basilica, built on the Constantinian Basilica, is the expression of the will of the Popes of the Renaissance who, relying on great artists such as Bramante, Michelangelo, Bernini and Maderno take us on a journey through art, faith and spirituality where we can not only admire the magnificence of the building, but also walk through its corridors, visit the chapels and enjoy the beauty of numerous works of art, such as Michelangelo's Pity (La Pietá). At the moment it is possible to visit the tombs of the Popes located in the grottos of the Vatican, and it is possible to see the tomb of Saint Peter and its successors. How to visit St. Peter's Basilica? The entrance to the St. Peter's Basilica is free, but given the large number of visitors, it is advisable to book a guided tour to avoid the line. The options to visit are several: it is possible to book a group guided tour or a visit with an audio guide, it is also possible to combine the group visit of the Basilica to the tour of Vatican Museums and the Sistine Chapel or visit the Vatican Mosaic Studio. You can also book a private guide to visit it and combine this visit with other attractions. Finally, if you want to fully enjoy St. Peter's Square, you can visit it accompanied by a private guide who can also combine this visit with the Castel Sant'Angelo, which is not far away. Other attractions in the area Within walking distance of St. Peter's Basilica are the Vatican Museums, one of Rome's main tourist attractions. Inside are thousands of works of art collected over the years by the Catholic Church for more than five centuries. Leaving behind the Basilica of St. Peter and walking along the Conciliation Avenue (Via della Conciliazione), we find the Castel Sant'Angelo built during the time of the Emperor Hadrian as his personal mausoleum and of his family. Later, this building became a military building and was integrated into the Aurelian Wall in 403. From the 11th century the fort became property of the popes as it connected with the Vatican City by a fortified corridor called “Passetto”. A visit you can´t miss!
Powerful guardian of the most sacred place in the city, for almost 2,000 years, Castel Sant'Angelo has towered over the Tiber, first as a symbol of Rome's imperial power, later as papal fortress. The stones that form it tell a story of stratification, transformation and fascinating events that have occurred over the centuries. It was built in 123 AD by Emperor Hadrian as a monumental tomb for himself and his family. The land on which it was built had been used for burial purposes since ancient times and was in a favorable position next to the river. It was connected to land by a bridge named "Helius", one of the names given to the emperor. But Hadrian died before the construction was finished and the emperor Antoninus Pius was the one who completed it and used it as sepulchre for his family members, of which his son, emperor Caracalla, was the most famous. The monument consisted of three blocks, one on top of the other, and must have been an imposing sight. On its summit was a statue of Hadrian, dressed as the sun god, driving a bronze four-horse chariot. The whole gigantic building was covered with precious marble and statues. In the Middle Ages, its function changed totally: the enormous mausoleum was transformed into a fortress and over the next 10 centuries modified many times. During that era, it was a fairly common defensive technique to reuse Roman monuments (theaters, monumental tombs, etc.) as part of the city walls to reinforce certain portions, or as military outposts in the areas most vulnerable to enemy attack. Emperor Aurelian, in 271 AD, made it part of the new system of walls and towers around the city. Its strategic position controlling northern access to the city made it a fundamentally important outpost, thus Castel Sant'Angelo, reinforced with extra towers and walls, became a defensive bastion during the time of the barbarian invasions, and by the Middle Ages, had already been transformed into an unassailable fortress. Over the great terrace, the large statue of the archangel Michael, which gives the castle its name, is particularly dear to the Romans; it's a reminder of the terrible plague that hit Rome in 590 AD and, according to a legend, ended thanks to the miraculous appearance of the angel. Pope Gregory the Great had just been elected and did all he could to end the pestilence; he entrusted salvation to prayer and processions, as was usual in those days whenever similar disasters befell the city. Right as the faithful were passing along the Tiber, the archangel Michael appeared and landed on the castle, conceding grace and ending the plague the moment he put his sword back into its scabbard. The Castle maintained its defensive role for centuries and its importance grew even more when the neighborhood called "Borgo" sprang up around the tomb of Saint Peter. Pope Leo III surrounded it with high walls called the Leonine walls, founding a fortified citadel around the Vatican that was ultimately completed by Pope Leo IV. During medieval times, Rome's most powerful families fought for control over Castel Sant'Angelo up until the return of the papal court from its long sojourn in Avignon in the second half of the 1300s, when it passed permanently into the hands of the pontiffs. Upon his return from France, Pope Urban V declared that the only guarantee of control over Rome was to give him the keys to the Castle. He defended it with a garrison of French soldiers but the population rose up against him, occupied the Castle and even tried to raze it to the ground. Boniface IX turned it into his residence, making the unassailable fortress a symbol of the worldly power of the popes, and connected it to the outside with a drawbridge. As with all fortresses, the castle had everything necessary within its walls in case of siege: huge water cisterns, granaries, even a mill. It also had an escape route created by the popes: the so-called "Passetto di Borgo", a secret corridor that connected it to the Leonine walls and the Vatican, a convenient passageway that guaranteed the safety of the pope in dangerous situations, something that certainly wasn't unusual in turbulent medieval Rome. There were many popes who used it and in a hurry, too: the Borgia Pope Alexander VI used it to escape to the castle and from Charles VIII troops. More famous was scurrying Clement VII who used it to escape the Landsknechts during the even more famous Sack of Rome in 1527, running across it, dodging a hailstorm of gunshot as no other pope had ever done before. Castel Sant'Angelo was considered so difficult to attack that the popes decided that there was no better place to store their treasures and so created the "Hall of the Treasury", in which was placed an enormous chest. This gigantic safe was built directly inside the treasury room and was made much larger than the doorway so that possible evil-doers wouldn't be able to spirit the whole thing away out the door. At the beginning of the 16th century, during the reign of Pope Alexander VI, the castle was completely transformed. This was when it became a powerful war machine: the Roman foundations were turned into huge bastions, the access-way over the bridge was made more secure with the construction of a round tower, and all around the walls, the waters of the Tiber were used to create a moat. During the Renaissance, Michelangelo had a hand in making the papal apartments ever more opulent. Finally, Bernini rendered the whole scene still more spectacular: he reinvented the bridge that connected the castle to land, that which became Sant'Angelo Bridge, and made it an obligatory passageway for the pilgrims crossing the Tiber, protected by the reassuring gaze of ten beautiful angels that carried symbols of the passion of Christ. The presence of angels wasn't enough to wipe out the memory of the atrocities committed within the castle, however: in its courtyards, executions by decapitation were carried out and the heads of the unfortunates were hung from the parapets as a warning to the populace; in the dark, dank dungeons of the castle, the most horrible tortures imaginable were used even on illustrious names like Giordano Bruno, accused of heresy and burned at the stake in Campo de' Fiori; count Cagliostro, wizard, masonic alchemist and healer, was put more than once into prison there for scams and robberies during his rather adventurous life, finally being closed up inside Castel Sant'Angelo on accusations of heresy. The only one who managed to escape the fortress was Benvenuto Cellini, goldsmith, sculptor and writer, imprisoned for having supposedly stolen goods from the pope, breaking his leg during the escape. Even music has celebrated the monument: Castel Sant'Angelo is the scene of the tragic epilogue of Giacomo Puccini's "Tosca", in which the protagonist, wild with pain for the loss of her lover and chased by the guards, throws herself from the castle walls. Whoever comes to Rome today and makes their way towards the Vatican, can't help but raise their eyes to admire this astounding work that has changed over the centuries and that no longer needs to defend itself; the reassuring presence of the angel on the highest terrace, with clothes and hair moved by the wind, still watches over and protects the city.
354
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Castel Sant'Angelo
50 Lungotevere Castello
354
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Powerful guardian of the most sacred place in the city, for almost 2,000 years, Castel Sant'Angelo has towered over the Tiber, first as a symbol of Rome's imperial power, later as papal fortress. The stones that form it tell a story of stratification, transformation and fascinating events that have occurred over the centuries. It was built in 123 AD by Emperor Hadrian as a monumental tomb for himself and his family. The land on which it was built had been used for burial purposes since ancient times and was in a favorable position next to the river. It was connected to land by a bridge named "Helius", one of the names given to the emperor. But Hadrian died before the construction was finished and the emperor Antoninus Pius was the one who completed it and used it as sepulchre for his family members, of which his son, emperor Caracalla, was the most famous. The monument consisted of three blocks, one on top of the other, and must have been an imposing sight. On its summit was a statue of Hadrian, dressed as the sun god, driving a bronze four-horse chariot. The whole gigantic building was covered with precious marble and statues. In the Middle Ages, its function changed totally: the enormous mausoleum was transformed into a fortress and over the next 10 centuries modified many times. During that era, it was a fairly common defensive technique to reuse Roman monuments (theaters, monumental tombs, etc.) as part of the city walls to reinforce certain portions, or as military outposts in the areas most vulnerable to enemy attack. Emperor Aurelian, in 271 AD, made it part of the new system of walls and towers around the city. Its strategic position controlling northern access to the city made it a fundamentally important outpost, thus Castel Sant'Angelo, reinforced with extra towers and walls, became a defensive bastion during the time of the barbarian invasions, and by the Middle Ages, had already been transformed into an unassailable fortress. Over the great terrace, the large statue of the archangel Michael, which gives the castle its name, is particularly dear to the Romans; it's a reminder of the terrible plague that hit Rome in 590 AD and, according to a legend, ended thanks to the miraculous appearance of the angel. Pope Gregory the Great had just been elected and did all he could to end the pestilence; he entrusted salvation to prayer and processions, as was usual in those days whenever similar disasters befell the city. Right as the faithful were passing along the Tiber, the archangel Michael appeared and landed on the castle, conceding grace and ending the plague the moment he put his sword back into its scabbard. The Castle maintained its defensive role for centuries and its importance grew even more when the neighborhood called "Borgo" sprang up around the tomb of Saint Peter. Pope Leo III surrounded it with high walls called the Leonine walls, founding a fortified citadel around the Vatican that was ultimately completed by Pope Leo IV. During medieval times, Rome's most powerful families fought for control over Castel Sant'Angelo up until the return of the papal court from its long sojourn in Avignon in the second half of the 1300s, when it passed permanently into the hands of the pontiffs. Upon his return from France, Pope Urban V declared that the only guarantee of control over Rome was to give him the keys to the Castle. He defended it with a garrison of French soldiers but the population rose up against him, occupied the Castle and even tried to raze it to the ground. Boniface IX turned it into his residence, making the unassailable fortress a symbol of the worldly power of the popes, and connected it to the outside with a drawbridge. As with all fortresses, the castle had everything necessary within its walls in case of siege: huge water cisterns, granaries, even a mill. It also had an escape route created by the popes: the so-called "Passetto di Borgo", a secret corridor that connected it to the Leonine walls and the Vatican, a convenient passageway that guaranteed the safety of the pope in dangerous situations, something that certainly wasn't unusual in turbulent medieval Rome. There were many popes who used it and in a hurry, too: the Borgia Pope Alexander VI used it to escape to the castle and from Charles VIII troops. More famous was scurrying Clement VII who used it to escape the Landsknechts during the even more famous Sack of Rome in 1527, running across it, dodging a hailstorm of gunshot as no other pope had ever done before. Castel Sant'Angelo was considered so difficult to attack that the popes decided that there was no better place to store their treasures and so created the "Hall of the Treasury", in which was placed an enormous chest. This gigantic safe was built directly inside the treasury room and was made much larger than the doorway so that possible evil-doers wouldn't be able to spirit the whole thing away out the door. At the beginning of the 16th century, during the reign of Pope Alexander VI, the castle was completely transformed. This was when it became a powerful war machine: the Roman foundations were turned into huge bastions, the access-way over the bridge was made more secure with the construction of a round tower, and all around the walls, the waters of the Tiber were used to create a moat. During the Renaissance, Michelangelo had a hand in making the papal apartments ever more opulent. Finally, Bernini rendered the whole scene still more spectacular: he reinvented the bridge that connected the castle to land, that which became Sant'Angelo Bridge, and made it an obligatory passageway for the pilgrims crossing the Tiber, protected by the reassuring gaze of ten beautiful angels that carried symbols of the passion of Christ. The presence of angels wasn't enough to wipe out the memory of the atrocities committed within the castle, however: in its courtyards, executions by decapitation were carried out and the heads of the unfortunates were hung from the parapets as a warning to the populace; in the dark, dank dungeons of the castle, the most horrible tortures imaginable were used even on illustrious names like Giordano Bruno, accused of heresy and burned at the stake in Campo de' Fiori; count Cagliostro, wizard, masonic alchemist and healer, was put more than once into prison there for scams and robberies during his rather adventurous life, finally being closed up inside Castel Sant'Angelo on accusations of heresy. The only one who managed to escape the fortress was Benvenuto Cellini, goldsmith, sculptor and writer, imprisoned for having supposedly stolen goods from the pope, breaking his leg during the escape. Even music has celebrated the monument: Castel Sant'Angelo is the scene of the tragic epilogue of Giacomo Puccini's "Tosca", in which the protagonist, wild with pain for the loss of her lover and chased by the guards, throws herself from the castle walls. Whoever comes to Rome today and makes their way towards the Vatican, can't help but raise their eyes to admire this astounding work that has changed over the centuries and that no longer needs to defend itself; the reassuring presence of the angel on the highest terrace, with clothes and hair moved by the wind, still watches over and protects the city.
Bridge of Castel St. Angelo One of the most famous bridge in Rome, built in the 239 AD. Large number of medieval pilgrims making their way to St. Peter's walked along it to cross the Tiber at Ponte sant'Angelo (with its Bernini Angels). Of the businesses sprang up to try to part the pilgrims from their money, the most enduring was the selling of rosaries, and the near street is still named after the rosaries (Via dei Coronari). The street followed the course of the ancient Roman Via Recta (straight street) which originally ran from today's Piazza Colonna to the Tiber. Making one's way through the vast trongh of people in Via dei Coronari could be extremely hazardous. In the Holy Year of 1450, some 200 pilgrims died, crushed by the crowds or drowned in the Tiber. Following the tragedy, Pope Nicholas V demolished the Roman triumphal arch that stood at the entrance to Ponte Sant'Angelo. In the late 15th century, Pope Sixtus IV encouraged of private houses and palaces along the street. Although the rosary seller have been replaced by antiques dealers, the street still has many original buildings from the 15th and 16th century. One of the earliest, at Nos. 156-7, is known as the House of Fiammetta, the mistress of Cesare Borgia.
St. Angelo Bridge
Bridge of Castel St. Angelo One of the most famous bridge in Rome, built in the 239 AD. Large number of medieval pilgrims making their way to St. Peter's walked along it to cross the Tiber at Ponte sant'Angelo (with its Bernini Angels). Of the businesses sprang up to try to part the pilgrims from their money, the most enduring was the selling of rosaries, and the near street is still named after the rosaries (Via dei Coronari). The street followed the course of the ancient Roman Via Recta (straight street) which originally ran from today's Piazza Colonna to the Tiber. Making one's way through the vast trongh of people in Via dei Coronari could be extremely hazardous. In the Holy Year of 1450, some 200 pilgrims died, crushed by the crowds or drowned in the Tiber. Following the tragedy, Pope Nicholas V demolished the Roman triumphal arch that stood at the entrance to Ponte Sant'Angelo. In the late 15th century, Pope Sixtus IV encouraged of private houses and palaces along the street. Although the rosary seller have been replaced by antiques dealers, the street still has many original buildings from the 15th and 16th century. One of the earliest, at Nos. 156-7, is known as the House of Fiammetta, the mistress of Cesare Borgia.
From the shadows of the ancient, winding streets of the historic center you suddenly come upon the breathtaking magnificence of Piazza Navona, born as a place of spectacle and still today a spectacular open air show; an architectural miracle in the heart of the Eternal City, filled with masterpieces in perfect harmony with each other. Your gaze is immediately drawn to the imposing Fountain of the Four Rivers in the center of the piazza, dominating the scene with its powerful presence and figures that seem to come alive from the sound of the rushing streams of the water. This piazza, which displays the genius of Bernini and Borromini, is one of the finest Baroque Masterpiece in papal Rome. Its harmony and colors, combined with its elegance, give it a charm that is enhanced by the surprising contrast of architecturally sober houses alternating with a number of monumental Buildings. The unusual shape of the piazza isn't a baroque affectation but precisely follows the ancient perimeter of the Stadium of Domitian that once stood on this spot. The stadium was a grand edifice ordered by the emperor in the first century BCE; it had a rectangular shape with rounded short sides, was completely covered in white marble and could hold up to 30,000 spectators! As opposed to other Roman structures built to house spectacles, such as Circus Maximus or the Colosseum, the stadium of Domitian didn't offer chariot races or gladiator fights: here were played the "Agones", the games in honor of Jove, and the athletes arrived directly from Greece for the sporting matches where even little girls challenged each other in races. The name of the piazza is derived precisely from the Greek term "Agone"--contest--which in the Middle Ages became "in Agone" and finally "Navona". As in almost all the places destined for fun and games in ancient Rome, the stadium was surrounded by taverns and lupanari (ancient houses of ill repute). The prostitutes would snare customers by exhibiting paintings illustrating their specialties. Female slaves, on the other hand, were shown naked to possible buyers. This was the fate of Sant'Agnese, a Christian virgin: legend has it that she was protected from indiscrete eyes thanks to the sudden miraculous growth of her hair and it is to her and the spot where she was martyred that the church designed by Borromini stands. In the Middle Ages, the piazza maintained its identity as an entertainment center and for decades was continuously used for horse races, bull fights and somewhat less noble battles than those of antiquity, some of them resembling a free-for-all more than anything else! The most spectacular show of all continued to be the so-called "lake”: every Saturday in August the drains to the sewer system were blocked and the water from the fountains was allowed to overflow until it filled the entire piazza: this was partly to fight the summer heat but the main reason was to be able to re-enact famous naval battles. According to accounts from the period, there were serenades, fireworks and carriages circulating around the lake, looking like enormous horse-drawn gondolas and accompanied by mischievous children. This joyous tradition continued for almost two centuries until Pope Pius IX suspended it for reasons of “public order”. Piazza Navona came back to life in the second half of the 15th century when the market that had been held until then at the foot of the Capitoline hill was moved there. The final destiny of the piazza however was decided by Giovanni Battista Pamphilj, who became pope in 1644 with the name Innocent X. Soon after being elected Pope, Innocent X (1644-55) decided to embellish the piazza in honor of his family, the Pamphilj, just as Urban VIII had revamped part of Quirinal hill to glorify the Berberini family. With this in mind, he had his family palace and the church of Sant'Agnese in Agone rebuilt, ordered the restoration of the two fountains (Fountain of the Moor and Fountain of Neptune) that Gregory XIII (1572-85) had installed at either end of the piazza, and commissioned the colossal Fontana Dei Quattro Fiumi in center. The people of Rome, forced to pay new taxes for the excessive embellishment of the piazza, reached the boiling point and laid siege to it, forcing the pope to surround it with armed guards. In the 19th century the piazza was paved with "sampietrini", the typical basalt paving blocks of the center of Rome. The new convex sidewalk in the middle unfortunately ended forever the possibility of any future enactments of the "lake". At the end of piazza Navona, there are two fountains by Giacomo della Porta: the Fountain of the Moor and the fountain of Neptune. On the other end, the fountain of Neptune, originally called the "fìountain of the kettle makers", remained unfinished for a long time until a few marine deities were added along with the statue of the god of the sea battling an octopus. Today life in the piazza revolves around the open-air-cafés and the seasonal fairs. The most popular is the one held in December where toys and crib figures are sold and the Feast of Epiphany. In italian popular folklore during the Feast of Epiphany on January 6th, the Befana (an old lady who brings sweets and sugar charcoal) visits all the children and tradition wants her to arrive here in Piazza Navona. Piazza Navona is one of the Roman's most treasured piazzas; here, in centuries past, acrobats and jugglers performed and even today, it's still lively with painters and street performers that put on their shows for tourists and passersby, new spectators of that life that's always flowed though the piazza with movement and joy.
346
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Piazza Navona
346
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
From the shadows of the ancient, winding streets of the historic center you suddenly come upon the breathtaking magnificence of Piazza Navona, born as a place of spectacle and still today a spectacular open air show; an architectural miracle in the heart of the Eternal City, filled with masterpieces in perfect harmony with each other. Your gaze is immediately drawn to the imposing Fountain of the Four Rivers in the center of the piazza, dominating the scene with its powerful presence and figures that seem to come alive from the sound of the rushing streams of the water. This piazza, which displays the genius of Bernini and Borromini, is one of the finest Baroque Masterpiece in papal Rome. Its harmony and colors, combined with its elegance, give it a charm that is enhanced by the surprising contrast of architecturally sober houses alternating with a number of monumental Buildings. The unusual shape of the piazza isn't a baroque affectation but precisely follows the ancient perimeter of the Stadium of Domitian that once stood on this spot. The stadium was a grand edifice ordered by the emperor in the first century BCE; it had a rectangular shape with rounded short sides, was completely covered in white marble and could hold up to 30,000 spectators! As opposed to other Roman structures built to house spectacles, such as Circus Maximus or the Colosseum, the stadium of Domitian didn't offer chariot races or gladiator fights: here were played the "Agones", the games in honor of Jove, and the athletes arrived directly from Greece for the sporting matches where even little girls challenged each other in races. The name of the piazza is derived precisely from the Greek term "Agone"--contest--which in the Middle Ages became "in Agone" and finally "Navona". As in almost all the places destined for fun and games in ancient Rome, the stadium was surrounded by taverns and lupanari (ancient houses of ill repute). The prostitutes would snare customers by exhibiting paintings illustrating their specialties. Female slaves, on the other hand, were shown naked to possible buyers. This was the fate of Sant'Agnese, a Christian virgin: legend has it that she was protected from indiscrete eyes thanks to the sudden miraculous growth of her hair and it is to her and the spot where she was martyred that the church designed by Borromini stands. In the Middle Ages, the piazza maintained its identity as an entertainment center and for decades was continuously used for horse races, bull fights and somewhat less noble battles than those of antiquity, some of them resembling a free-for-all more than anything else! The most spectacular show of all continued to be the so-called "lake”: every Saturday in August the drains to the sewer system were blocked and the water from the fountains was allowed to overflow until it filled the entire piazza: this was partly to fight the summer heat but the main reason was to be able to re-enact famous naval battles. According to accounts from the period, there were serenades, fireworks and carriages circulating around the lake, looking like enormous horse-drawn gondolas and accompanied by mischievous children. This joyous tradition continued for almost two centuries until Pope Pius IX suspended it for reasons of “public order”. Piazza Navona came back to life in the second half of the 15th century when the market that had been held until then at the foot of the Capitoline hill was moved there. The final destiny of the piazza however was decided by Giovanni Battista Pamphilj, who became pope in 1644 with the name Innocent X. Soon after being elected Pope, Innocent X (1644-55) decided to embellish the piazza in honor of his family, the Pamphilj, just as Urban VIII had revamped part of Quirinal hill to glorify the Berberini family. With this in mind, he had his family palace and the church of Sant'Agnese in Agone rebuilt, ordered the restoration of the two fountains (Fountain of the Moor and Fountain of Neptune) that Gregory XIII (1572-85) had installed at either end of the piazza, and commissioned the colossal Fontana Dei Quattro Fiumi in center. The people of Rome, forced to pay new taxes for the excessive embellishment of the piazza, reached the boiling point and laid siege to it, forcing the pope to surround it with armed guards. In the 19th century the piazza was paved with "sampietrini", the typical basalt paving blocks of the center of Rome. The new convex sidewalk in the middle unfortunately ended forever the possibility of any future enactments of the "lake". At the end of piazza Navona, there are two fountains by Giacomo della Porta: the Fountain of the Moor and the fountain of Neptune. On the other end, the fountain of Neptune, originally called the "fìountain of the kettle makers", remained unfinished for a long time until a few marine deities were added along with the statue of the god of the sea battling an octopus. Today life in the piazza revolves around the open-air-cafés and the seasonal fairs. The most popular is the one held in December where toys and crib figures are sold and the Feast of Epiphany. In italian popular folklore during the Feast of Epiphany on January 6th, the Befana (an old lady who brings sweets and sugar charcoal) visits all the children and tradition wants her to arrive here in Piazza Navona. Piazza Navona is one of the Roman's most treasured piazzas; here, in centuries past, acrobats and jugglers performed and even today, it's still lively with painters and street performers that put on their shows for tourists and passersby, new spectators of that life that's always flowed though the piazza with movement and joy.
The Roman Pantheon is the monument with the greatest number of records: the best preserved, with the biggest brick dome in the history of architecture and is considered the forerunner of all modern places of worship. It is the most copied and imitated of all ancient works. Michelangelo felt it was the work of angels, not men. Where it stands was not chosen by chance, but is a legendary place in the city’s history. According to Roman legend, it is the place where the founder of Rome, Romulus, at his death was seized by an eagle and taken off into the skies with the Gods. But what was it for and what does the name mean? The name comes from two Greek words pan, “everything” and theon, “divine”. Originally, the Pantheon was a small temple dedicated to all Roman gods. Built between 25 and 27 B.C. by the consul Agrippa, Prefect of the Emperor Augustus, the present building is the result of subsequent, heavy restructuring. Domitian, in 80 A.D., rebuilt it after a fire; thirty years later it was hit by lightening and caught fire again. It was then rebuilt in its present shape by the Emperor Hadrian; under his reign, Rome reached its maximum splendour and the present structure is probably the fruit of his eclectic genius and exotic tastes. In fact, the Pantheon combines a clearly Roman, cylindrical structure with the splendid outer colonnade of Greek inspiration. Although the new structure was very different from the original, Hadrian wanted a Latin inscription on the façade, that translated means: “It was built by Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, consul for the third time”. What is extraordinary about the Pantheon is not only its architecture or external beauty, but also the fact that it represents a true cultural revolution. It was the first temple built for the common people. Today, this could seem an obvious concept, but in ancient times temples were forbidden places, only for vestals and priests. The term temple comes from the Latin templum, which means “delimited space”; inside was sacred and with often just enough space for a sacrificial altar or a brazier for divine fire; temples were conceived to be beautiful and imposing outside and everyone was denied access; the penalty for access was death. The Pantheon overturns this concept and for the first time the idea of a place of worship open to everyone was conceived, where the faithful could spiritually communicate with the Gods. To enter, we cross the pronaos with its imposing granite column forest. There are sixteen, monoliths, more than 14 metres high, some grey others in pink granite from Aswan, the latter brought from ancient Egypt by transport that would be considered exceptional even today. The Bronze door at the end of the columns is just as impressive in size, 7 metres high, a real record for the times. On entering the door, the effect you feel is meant to be overwhelming. You suddenly find yourself in this huge empty space which causes vertigo and makes you feel tiny. This is how you were supposed to feel in front of the Gods. The space is a perfect sphere symbolising the vault of heaven; the height of the dome is the same as its diameter creating perfect balance and unique harmony; it is round so as to place all Gods at the same level of importance. Surrounding you, placed in seven splendid niches between two Corinthian columns there used to be the seven gods linked to the worship of planets, or considered to be such: the Sun, the Moon, Venus, Saturn, Jupiter, Mercury and Mars. And with the advent of Christianity, some of them were used for small altars dedicated to Christian martyrs. The Pantheon’s greatness mainly comes from its mighty dome, still today the biggest brick dome ever built. Raising it using bricks alone would have been impossible; the ceiling would not have withstood the weight and would have collapsed. As the Romans had no reinforced concrete they found another solution. This dome was built with a single casting of concrete in subsequent layers. The concrete was lightened by mixing it with lighter stones as it neared the highest point. Initially mixing the concrete with heavy travertine stone, going upwards using progressively lighter materials; like tuffo stone. The top layer was made with pumice, a light-weight stone. At the centre of the dome, there is a 9 metre diameter hole, the Oculus. A brilliant idea. The Pantheon has no windows and the only light penetrates from above streaming down like a river of inner light; towards midday, the rays coming through the Oculus are particularly intense. The belief that the Oculus was built so that the rain could not get in is not true, when it rains, it also rains in the Pantheon; the floor is slightly convex so the water flows away thanks to an effective drainage system. In the VII century, the Pantheon was turned into a church dedicated to Mary and the Martyrs, a fact that guaranteed, at least partially, its preservation. In the XVI century, Pope Urban VIII, from the princely Barberini family, decided to remove all the bronze covering from the pronaos ceiling and to use it for other purposes: one part was used to forge 80 canons for the papal fortress of Castle Sant’Angelo; the rest was used for a real masterpiece. This remaining part was used by Bernini to create the splendid baldacchino or canopy of St Peter’s which stand over the papal altar in the centre of the basilica. This episode, together with the various thefts of building material that occurred in those years to monuments of ancient Rome, consigned the Barberini family to history with the famous saying: “What the barbarians didn’t do to Rome the Barberini did”. During the same period, by the Pope’s wishes, Bernini tried to highlight the clerical character of the structure by creating two bell towers at the sides of the pronaos, nicknamed by the Romans “ass’s ears”; they were eliminated in the XIX century. However, everything you see has not changed much in two thousand years. The columns, the marble, the inner decorations have not changed; even the floor is the same, built with precious marble from all over the Mediterranean. Here walked emperors like Hadrian and Charles V. The Pantheon is also a national Mausoleum; it is the resting place of the Italian Royal family and some great Renaissance artists including Raphael. Yet again the Roman Pantheon is the forerunner of several other famous buildings, like that of the same name in Paris or Westminster Abbey. Today, the square with this ancient masterpiece “Piazza della Rotonda” is one of the most popular places in the city. It was built during the papacy of Clement XI by knocking down several buildings. Over the centuries, the Pantheon in Rome has been ransacked, closed, used as a fortress and as a church. It has suffered earthquakes and floods, but has survived the centuries intact and today, after more than two thousand years, it is still the bewitching backdrop to the walks of Romans and tourists.
296
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Pantheon
296
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
The Roman Pantheon is the monument with the greatest number of records: the best preserved, with the biggest brick dome in the history of architecture and is considered the forerunner of all modern places of worship. It is the most copied and imitated of all ancient works. Michelangelo felt it was the work of angels, not men. Where it stands was not chosen by chance, but is a legendary place in the city’s history. According to Roman legend, it is the place where the founder of Rome, Romulus, at his death was seized by an eagle and taken off into the skies with the Gods. But what was it for and what does the name mean? The name comes from two Greek words pan, “everything” and theon, “divine”. Originally, the Pantheon was a small temple dedicated to all Roman gods. Built between 25 and 27 B.C. by the consul Agrippa, Prefect of the Emperor Augustus, the present building is the result of subsequent, heavy restructuring. Domitian, in 80 A.D., rebuilt it after a fire; thirty years later it was hit by lightening and caught fire again. It was then rebuilt in its present shape by the Emperor Hadrian; under his reign, Rome reached its maximum splendour and the present structure is probably the fruit of his eclectic genius and exotic tastes. In fact, the Pantheon combines a clearly Roman, cylindrical structure with the splendid outer colonnade of Greek inspiration. Although the new structure was very different from the original, Hadrian wanted a Latin inscription on the façade, that translated means: “It was built by Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, consul for the third time”. What is extraordinary about the Pantheon is not only its architecture or external beauty, but also the fact that it represents a true cultural revolution. It was the first temple built for the common people. Today, this could seem an obvious concept, but in ancient times temples were forbidden places, only for vestals and priests. The term temple comes from the Latin templum, which means “delimited space”; inside was sacred and with often just enough space for a sacrificial altar or a brazier for divine fire; temples were conceived to be beautiful and imposing outside and everyone was denied access; the penalty for access was death. The Pantheon overturns this concept and for the first time the idea of a place of worship open to everyone was conceived, where the faithful could spiritually communicate with the Gods. To enter, we cross the pronaos with its imposing granite column forest. There are sixteen, monoliths, more than 14 metres high, some grey others in pink granite from Aswan, the latter brought from ancient Egypt by transport that would be considered exceptional even today. The Bronze door at the end of the columns is just as impressive in size, 7 metres high, a real record for the times. On entering the door, the effect you feel is meant to be overwhelming. You suddenly find yourself in this huge empty space which causes vertigo and makes you feel tiny. This is how you were supposed to feel in front of the Gods. The space is a perfect sphere symbolising the vault of heaven; the height of the dome is the same as its diameter creating perfect balance and unique harmony; it is round so as to place all Gods at the same level of importance. Surrounding you, placed in seven splendid niches between two Corinthian columns there used to be the seven gods linked to the worship of planets, or considered to be such: the Sun, the Moon, Venus, Saturn, Jupiter, Mercury and Mars. And with the advent of Christianity, some of them were used for small altars dedicated to Christian martyrs. The Pantheon’s greatness mainly comes from its mighty dome, still today the biggest brick dome ever built. Raising it using bricks alone would have been impossible; the ceiling would not have withstood the weight and would have collapsed. As the Romans had no reinforced concrete they found another solution. This dome was built with a single casting of concrete in subsequent layers. The concrete was lightened by mixing it with lighter stones as it neared the highest point. Initially mixing the concrete with heavy travertine stone, going upwards using progressively lighter materials; like tuffo stone. The top layer was made with pumice, a light-weight stone. At the centre of the dome, there is a 9 metre diameter hole, the Oculus. A brilliant idea. The Pantheon has no windows and the only light penetrates from above streaming down like a river of inner light; towards midday, the rays coming through the Oculus are particularly intense. The belief that the Oculus was built so that the rain could not get in is not true, when it rains, it also rains in the Pantheon; the floor is slightly convex so the water flows away thanks to an effective drainage system. In the VII century, the Pantheon was turned into a church dedicated to Mary and the Martyrs, a fact that guaranteed, at least partially, its preservation. In the XVI century, Pope Urban VIII, from the princely Barberini family, decided to remove all the bronze covering from the pronaos ceiling and to use it for other purposes: one part was used to forge 80 canons for the papal fortress of Castle Sant’Angelo; the rest was used for a real masterpiece. This remaining part was used by Bernini to create the splendid baldacchino or canopy of St Peter’s which stand over the papal altar in the centre of the basilica. This episode, together with the various thefts of building material that occurred in those years to monuments of ancient Rome, consigned the Barberini family to history with the famous saying: “What the barbarians didn’t do to Rome the Barberini did”. During the same period, by the Pope’s wishes, Bernini tried to highlight the clerical character of the structure by creating two bell towers at the sides of the pronaos, nicknamed by the Romans “ass’s ears”; they were eliminated in the XIX century. However, everything you see has not changed much in two thousand years. The columns, the marble, the inner decorations have not changed; even the floor is the same, built with precious marble from all over the Mediterranean. Here walked emperors like Hadrian and Charles V. The Pantheon is also a national Mausoleum; it is the resting place of the Italian Royal family and some great Renaissance artists including Raphael. Yet again the Roman Pantheon is the forerunner of several other famous buildings, like that of the same name in Paris or Westminster Abbey. Today, the square with this ancient masterpiece “Piazza della Rotonda” is one of the most popular places in the city. It was built during the papacy of Clement XI by knocking down several buildings. Over the centuries, the Pantheon in Rome has been ransacked, closed, used as a fortress and as a church. It has suffered earthquakes and floods, but has survived the centuries intact and today, after more than two thousand years, it is still the bewitching backdrop to the walks of Romans and tourists.
The Vatican Museums begin just beyond a massive bronze door that, like magic, takes you out of Italy and into the smallest country in the world: the Vatican. There are priceless works of art here, collected by the popes or often expressly commissioned by them. More than 70,000 pieces are on exhibition in over 42,000 square meters, with another 50,000 pieces preserved in the vaults and storerooms. Forget about seeing everything in a single visit: it simply can't be done. To the millions of visitors that come here from every part of the globe to admire these marvels, the whole complex seems to be one gigantic museum but the Vatican Museums, with their full name "Papal Museums and Galleries", are the Museum of Museums, the result of the union of various collections, collections that often take the name of the pope that began them. The most sought-after stop on the Vatican Museum trail is without doubt the Sistine Chapel however every room is rich in history and precious examples of life from every era. The birth of the Museum was almost by chance: it all began in 1506, when an ancient sculpture was found in a vineyard on the Esquiline Hill near Nero's Domus Aurea. It was only later that it was recognized as one of the most famous statues ever: the Laocoonte, described even by the Latin author Pliny. The subject of the work is taken from an episode of Virgil's Aeneid in which the seer and priest Laocoonte, for having predicted Ulysses' use of the Trojan Horse, was punished by the gods who sent two enormous snakes to strangle him and his two children in their deadly coils. Like all the pontiffs, Pope Julius II had always shown great interest in artwork, and he immediately summoned Michelangelo and Giuliano da Sangallo to authenticate the sculpture. The pope then decided to acquire it, making sure no one else could do so before he did. So the dramatic Laocoonte was put on exhibit in the Vatican, enriching Pope Julius II's collection that was the seed of what would ultimately become the Vatican Museums. The Laocoonte was placed in Bramante's Belvedere Courtyard where Julius II grouped all his ancient statuary, transforming it into the "Courtyard of the Statues". Visitors came from all over the world just to admire the sculptures and artists stopped there to copy the masterworks. The Museums as they appear today, were created in the second half of the 18th century and are made up of two parts: the actual Museum and the popes palaces, naturally only the portions open to the public. The visit is an incredible stroll through the history of art where you can meet the greatest artists ever, through their most important works. You can organize your visit according to the time you have at your disposal; the shortest takes at least two hours, the longest, around six. You'll discover masterpieces in a sort of crescendo as you pass from one room to another; in fact, the rooms themselves are works of art, frescoed by artists like Fra Angelico, Pinturicchio or Raphael. The Vatican Museums: The courtyard of the Pinecone Chiaramonti Gallery Braccio Nuovo Pio-Clementino Museum Octagonal Courtyard Apoxyomenos Apollo del Belvedere Laocoonte Galleries of the statues Belvedere Torso The round hall Sala a Croce Greca Gregorian Egyptian Museum Gregorian Etruscan Museum Gallery of the Candelabra Gallery of Tapestries Gallery of Maps Sala Sobieski Raphael’s rooms Hall of Constantine Room of Heliodorus Room of the Segnatura Room of the fire in the Borgo Sala dei Chiaroscuri Cappella Niccolina Appartamento Borgia The Sistine Chapel The ceiling Last Judgment Musei della Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana Pinacoteca Vaticana Museo Gregoriano Profano Museo Pio Cristiano
465
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Vatikanmuseerna
465
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
The Vatican Museums begin just beyond a massive bronze door that, like magic, takes you out of Italy and into the smallest country in the world: the Vatican. There are priceless works of art here, collected by the popes or often expressly commissioned by them. More than 70,000 pieces are on exhibition in over 42,000 square meters, with another 50,000 pieces preserved in the vaults and storerooms. Forget about seeing everything in a single visit: it simply can't be done. To the millions of visitors that come here from every part of the globe to admire these marvels, the whole complex seems to be one gigantic museum but the Vatican Museums, with their full name "Papal Museums and Galleries", are the Museum of Museums, the result of the union of various collections, collections that often take the name of the pope that began them. The most sought-after stop on the Vatican Museum trail is without doubt the Sistine Chapel however every room is rich in history and precious examples of life from every era. The birth of the Museum was almost by chance: it all began in 1506, when an ancient sculpture was found in a vineyard on the Esquiline Hill near Nero's Domus Aurea. It was only later that it was recognized as one of the most famous statues ever: the Laocoonte, described even by the Latin author Pliny. The subject of the work is taken from an episode of Virgil's Aeneid in which the seer and priest Laocoonte, for having predicted Ulysses' use of the Trojan Horse, was punished by the gods who sent two enormous snakes to strangle him and his two children in their deadly coils. Like all the pontiffs, Pope Julius II had always shown great interest in artwork, and he immediately summoned Michelangelo and Giuliano da Sangallo to authenticate the sculpture. The pope then decided to acquire it, making sure no one else could do so before he did. So the dramatic Laocoonte was put on exhibit in the Vatican, enriching Pope Julius II's collection that was the seed of what would ultimately become the Vatican Museums. The Laocoonte was placed in Bramante's Belvedere Courtyard where Julius II grouped all his ancient statuary, transforming it into the "Courtyard of the Statues". Visitors came from all over the world just to admire the sculptures and artists stopped there to copy the masterworks. The Museums as they appear today, were created in the second half of the 18th century and are made up of two parts: the actual Museum and the popes palaces, naturally only the portions open to the public. The visit is an incredible stroll through the history of art where you can meet the greatest artists ever, through their most important works. You can organize your visit according to the time you have at your disposal; the shortest takes at least two hours, the longest, around six. You'll discover masterpieces in a sort of crescendo as you pass from one room to another; in fact, the rooms themselves are works of art, frescoed by artists like Fra Angelico, Pinturicchio or Raphael. The Vatican Museums: The courtyard of the Pinecone Chiaramonti Gallery Braccio Nuovo Pio-Clementino Museum Octagonal Courtyard Apoxyomenos Apollo del Belvedere Laocoonte Galleries of the statues Belvedere Torso The round hall Sala a Croce Greca Gregorian Egyptian Museum Gregorian Etruscan Museum Gallery of the Candelabra Gallery of Tapestries Gallery of Maps Sala Sobieski Raphael’s rooms Hall of Constantine Room of Heliodorus Room of the Segnatura Room of the fire in the Borgo Sala dei Chiaroscuri Cappella Niccolina Appartamento Borgia The Sistine Chapel The ceiling Last Judgment Musei della Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana Pinacoteca Vaticana Museo Gregoriano Profano Museo Pio Cristiano
The Flavius amphitheatre is the biggest and most imposing in the Roman world, but is also the most famous monument in Rome and is known as the "Colosseum" or "Coliseum". Started by Emperor Vespasian of the Flavia family, it was opened by his son Titus in 80 A.D. The highly ostentatious opening ceremony, lasted one hundred days during which people saw great fights, shows and hunts involving the killing of thousands of animals (5000 according to the historian Suetonius). For the opening, the arena space was filled with water for one of the most fantastic events held in Roman times, naumachias – real sea battles reproducing great battles of the past. But why does the whole world call it the Colosseum? This name appeared for the first time in a famous prophecy of the medieval monk Venerable Beda: “Rome will exist as long as the Colosseum does; when the Colosseum falls so will Rome; when Rome falls so will the world”. Perhaps he got the name from the enormous statue of the Emperor Nero, “the Colossus” 35 meters high, which stood right next to the amphitheatre and has now been completely destroyed. The Roman Colosseum is one of the most imposing ancient structures. Imagine it all white, completely covered in splendid travertine stone slabs. It is elliptic in shape in order to hold more spectators. It had four floors; the first three had eighty arches each; the arches on the second and third floors were decorated with huge statues. It's incredible to think that this imposing building took less than ten years to build. How did they do it? The Romans were really good at an architectural technique that they knew well: the arch. An arch allows you to distribute the weight of heavy constructions effectively, in a perfect manner. The Romans used arches as the main element of their architecture, think of Roman aqueducts, for example. The Coliseum can be viewed as though it were a series of aqueducts built one on top of the other. What we see nowadays is just the skeleton of what was the greatest arena in the ancient world. Three-fifths of the outer surrounding brick wall are missing. In the Middle Ages, when no longer in use, the roman Colosseum was transformed into an enormous marble, lead and iron quarry used by Popes to build Barberini Palace, Piazza Venezia and even St. Peter's. The holes still seen in many columns are just the holes made to extract the lead and iron used by the Romans for the nails inside the marble blocks. The amphitheatre could hold up to seventy thousand spectators. The tiers of seats were inclined in such a way as to enable people to get a perfect view from wherever they sat. Entry was free for all Roman citizens, but places were divided according to social status, similar to seating divisions in today’s theatres; the seats at the top were for the common people, but with distinct sections for men and women, the nearer you got to the arena the higher your social status; in the front row were senators, vestals, priests and - naturally - the emperor. Like modern sports stadiums, the Roman Colosseum gave spectators efficient protection from the sun thanks to its ingenious roof covering, the “Velarium”. The Velarium was an enormous linen tarpaulin hung by a system of ropes, winches and wooden poles that girded the top of the outer wall. It took one hundred sailors from the Imperial fleet to move it. They moved in perfect synchrony to the beating of a drum. The roman Colosseum and the Gladiators On entering, we see the arena straight ahead of us. The stage for shows, whose floor was once made from a mixture of brick and wood, has now disappeared altogether. In its place you can see the cellars which housed equipment used to prepare and carry out the games. The two underground floors housed the lifts and hoists with their counter weights, of which we can still see the rails today; they were the special effects of the time, used to hoist up animals and gladiators who burst into the arena through trapdoors, suddenly appearing in a burst of white dust giving the audience great surprise effects. A complex system of hinges and lifts also allowed them to hoist up set-designed backdrops, used for the hunting events. The shows taking place in the Colosseum were both of a symbolic and solid nature and created a link between citizens and their leader through common participation at important public events with the not unimportant function of giving the people some fun to distract them from political problems. So, what exactly happened inside the Colosseum in Rome? Lots of different shows were put on in the amphitheatre, at different times, following a specific time schedule: in the morning the "Venationes" - fights between exotic animals, or between men and animals. At times, as a form of public execution, people were left to the mercy of ferocious beasts. The "Silvae" must have been quite spectacular; special scenery was reconstructed in the arena by painters and set-designers, with trees and bushes, so that it looked like a forest full of animals, which in this case did not necessarily have to be killed. But also less cruel and definitely more unique events took place like the famous exhibition of an elephant who knew how to write words in the sand with its trunk. It is not true that the Colosseum was used to kill Christians as a kind of spectacle. The event the audience enjoyed most was definitely the gladiators. Towards midday there was a break during which they removed the bodies and spread more sand on the arena floor. A deafening noise arose from the audience; to the blaring of trumpets and the beating of drums, the gladiators triumphantly paraded into the packed arena. They came from an underground passageway linked directly to the Gladiators’ barracks, the Ludus Magnus and were welcomed by fans like real heroes, a bit like today’s sports champions. After a brief walk around the arena, the gladiators paid homage to the Emperor’s stage saluting with the famous words "Ave Cesare morituri te salutant" (Hail Caesar, those who are about to die salute you). But who were the gladiators? The term gladiator comes from Gladius, the short sword used by legionaries. Rarely were they people who had to fight against their will. Normally, gladiators were prisoners of war who were given the choice to be slaves or to fight in the arena for a limited period of time at the end of which they would be free, often after having put aside a discrete sum of money. Others were simply paupers in search of fame and riches. Along with a good pay, the profession gave them great popularity, especially with the women, who even paid out large sums of money just to spend a night of passion with one of them. There were twelve types of gladiators; there was the “Retiarius” armed with a net, a trident and a knife; or those who fought with a shield and a sickle, others wore a crested helmet, strong armour and carried a javelin. The duellers were chosen from different categories for dramatic effect. If the defeated gladiator was wounded, he could ask for pardon by raising an arm; then the audience would shout to the emperor present on his stage to save him or put him to death; the emperor decided the poor man’s fate: thumbs up saved him, thumbs down put the gladiator to death. The winners received golden palm leaves and large amounts of money. After each battle, servants dressed like Charon, the Ferryman of the Underworld, made sure that the wounded were really dead and where necessary finished them off. The gladiator’s blood was much in demand; people thought it had healing powers and could heal you from epilepsy and give you greater sexual vigour. Roman spectators loved cruel shows, those that we consider violent to say the least. Their passion for these events can be compared to what some people nowadays feel for the so-called “splatter” cinema. With one basic difference: the crudeness of reality. Just think that during mass battles and in the hunts, the smell of blood and burnt flesh and that of wild animals became unbearable and the effort to mask it with incense and perfumes had no effect whatsoever. After the VI century, with the Empire's decline, the Colosseum fell into disuse and its walls housed confraternities, hospitals, hermits and even a cemetery. From the Middle Ages onwards, the Colosseum has been one of Rome's and the world's greatest marvels, attracting hoards of visitors. Threatened with demolition by Sixtus V for town-planning reasons, it was declared a sacred monument dedicated to the Passion of Christ by Benedict XIV, placing a cross on a pedestal, as a symbol of the sufferings of all Christian martyrs. This cross is still the starting point for the Stations of the Cross on Good Friday. Since then, it has become an object of worship for Christians and was protected from further destruction and ruin; in fact, Popes after that restored and consolidated it. For a tourist today, seeing the Colosseum means, as Charles Dickens wrote, "seeing the ghost of old Rome floating over the places its people walk in".
81
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Colosseum
1 Piazza del Colosseo
81
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
The Flavius amphitheatre is the biggest and most imposing in the Roman world, but is also the most famous monument in Rome and is known as the "Colosseum" or "Coliseum". Started by Emperor Vespasian of the Flavia family, it was opened by his son Titus in 80 A.D. The highly ostentatious opening ceremony, lasted one hundred days during which people saw great fights, shows and hunts involving the killing of thousands of animals (5000 according to the historian Suetonius). For the opening, the arena space was filled with water for one of the most fantastic events held in Roman times, naumachias – real sea battles reproducing great battles of the past. But why does the whole world call it the Colosseum? This name appeared for the first time in a famous prophecy of the medieval monk Venerable Beda: “Rome will exist as long as the Colosseum does; when the Colosseum falls so will Rome; when Rome falls so will the world”. Perhaps he got the name from the enormous statue of the Emperor Nero, “the Colossus” 35 meters high, which stood right next to the amphitheatre and has now been completely destroyed. The Roman Colosseum is one of the most imposing ancient structures. Imagine it all white, completely covered in splendid travertine stone slabs. It is elliptic in shape in order to hold more spectators. It had four floors; the first three had eighty arches each; the arches on the second and third floors were decorated with huge statues. It's incredible to think that this imposing building took less than ten years to build. How did they do it? The Romans were really good at an architectural technique that they knew well: the arch. An arch allows you to distribute the weight of heavy constructions effectively, in a perfect manner. The Romans used arches as the main element of their architecture, think of Roman aqueducts, for example. The Coliseum can be viewed as though it were a series of aqueducts built one on top of the other. What we see nowadays is just the skeleton of what was the greatest arena in the ancient world. Three-fifths of the outer surrounding brick wall are missing. In the Middle Ages, when no longer in use, the roman Colosseum was transformed into an enormous marble, lead and iron quarry used by Popes to build Barberini Palace, Piazza Venezia and even St. Peter's. The holes still seen in many columns are just the holes made to extract the lead and iron used by the Romans for the nails inside the marble blocks. The amphitheatre could hold up to seventy thousand spectators. The tiers of seats were inclined in such a way as to enable people to get a perfect view from wherever they sat. Entry was free for all Roman citizens, but places were divided according to social status, similar to seating divisions in today’s theatres; the seats at the top were for the common people, but with distinct sections for men and women, the nearer you got to the arena the higher your social status; in the front row were senators, vestals, priests and - naturally - the emperor. Like modern sports stadiums, the Roman Colosseum gave spectators efficient protection from the sun thanks to its ingenious roof covering, the “Velarium”. The Velarium was an enormous linen tarpaulin hung by a system of ropes, winches and wooden poles that girded the top of the outer wall. It took one hundred sailors from the Imperial fleet to move it. They moved in perfect synchrony to the beating of a drum. The roman Colosseum and the Gladiators On entering, we see the arena straight ahead of us. The stage for shows, whose floor was once made from a mixture of brick and wood, has now disappeared altogether. In its place you can see the cellars which housed equipment used to prepare and carry out the games. The two underground floors housed the lifts and hoists with their counter weights, of which we can still see the rails today; they were the special effects of the time, used to hoist up animals and gladiators who burst into the arena through trapdoors, suddenly appearing in a burst of white dust giving the audience great surprise effects. A complex system of hinges and lifts also allowed them to hoist up set-designed backdrops, used for the hunting events. The shows taking place in the Colosseum were both of a symbolic and solid nature and created a link between citizens and their leader through common participation at important public events with the not unimportant function of giving the people some fun to distract them from political problems. So, what exactly happened inside the Colosseum in Rome? Lots of different shows were put on in the amphitheatre, at different times, following a specific time schedule: in the morning the "Venationes" - fights between exotic animals, or between men and animals. At times, as a form of public execution, people were left to the mercy of ferocious beasts. The "Silvae" must have been quite spectacular; special scenery was reconstructed in the arena by painters and set-designers, with trees and bushes, so that it looked like a forest full of animals, which in this case did not necessarily have to be killed. But also less cruel and definitely more unique events took place like the famous exhibition of an elephant who knew how to write words in the sand with its trunk. It is not true that the Colosseum was used to kill Christians as a kind of spectacle. The event the audience enjoyed most was definitely the gladiators. Towards midday there was a break during which they removed the bodies and spread more sand on the arena floor. A deafening noise arose from the audience; to the blaring of trumpets and the beating of drums, the gladiators triumphantly paraded into the packed arena. They came from an underground passageway linked directly to the Gladiators’ barracks, the Ludus Magnus and were welcomed by fans like real heroes, a bit like today’s sports champions. After a brief walk around the arena, the gladiators paid homage to the Emperor’s stage saluting with the famous words "Ave Cesare morituri te salutant" (Hail Caesar, those who are about to die salute you). But who were the gladiators? The term gladiator comes from Gladius, the short sword used by legionaries. Rarely were they people who had to fight against their will. Normally, gladiators were prisoners of war who were given the choice to be slaves or to fight in the arena for a limited period of time at the end of which they would be free, often after having put aside a discrete sum of money. Others were simply paupers in search of fame and riches. Along with a good pay, the profession gave them great popularity, especially with the women, who even paid out large sums of money just to spend a night of passion with one of them. There were twelve types of gladiators; there was the “Retiarius” armed with a net, a trident and a knife; or those who fought with a shield and a sickle, others wore a crested helmet, strong armour and carried a javelin. The duellers were chosen from different categories for dramatic effect. If the defeated gladiator was wounded, he could ask for pardon by raising an arm; then the audience would shout to the emperor present on his stage to save him or put him to death; the emperor decided the poor man’s fate: thumbs up saved him, thumbs down put the gladiator to death. The winners received golden palm leaves and large amounts of money. After each battle, servants dressed like Charon, the Ferryman of the Underworld, made sure that the wounded were really dead and where necessary finished them off. The gladiator’s blood was much in demand; people thought it had healing powers and could heal you from epilepsy and give you greater sexual vigour. Roman spectators loved cruel shows, those that we consider violent to say the least. Their passion for these events can be compared to what some people nowadays feel for the so-called “splatter” cinema. With one basic difference: the crudeness of reality. Just think that during mass battles and in the hunts, the smell of blood and burnt flesh and that of wild animals became unbearable and the effort to mask it with incense and perfumes had no effect whatsoever. After the VI century, with the Empire's decline, the Colosseum fell into disuse and its walls housed confraternities, hospitals, hermits and even a cemetery. From the Middle Ages onwards, the Colosseum has been one of Rome's and the world's greatest marvels, attracting hoards of visitors. Threatened with demolition by Sixtus V for town-planning reasons, it was declared a sacred monument dedicated to the Passion of Christ by Benedict XIV, placing a cross on a pedestal, as a symbol of the sufferings of all Christian martyrs. This cross is still the starting point for the Stations of the Cross on Good Friday. Since then, it has become an object of worship for Christians and was protected from further destruction and ruin; in fact, Popes after that restored and consolidated it. For a tourist today, seeing the Colosseum means, as Charles Dickens wrote, "seeing the ghost of old Rome floating over the places its people walk in".
The Roman Forum was the pulsing heart of Rome, the city’s main piazza where citizens of every social level met to exchange opinions, do business, buy in the markets and renew their strength over a tasty dish and a cup of good wine. An enormous crowd gathered there every day. Walking through the Forum one might meet rich merchants in precious clothes and sandals; or barefoot serving girls carrying baskets full of produce; reclining Roman nobles on a litter carried by slaves or sellers yelling full voiced to attract the customers. There was an overwhelming mix of colors, smells and merchandise for sale, of thousands of different faces from all parts of the world as it was known then. Rome was a cosmopolitan city, filled with people from Africa, Europe and the Middle East. Along its streets one could go from one extreme to another; from the smiles of the Roman women to the prostitutes on the street corners, from the perfume of temple incense to the pungent smells of cooking food, from the gold of the monuments to the vagabonds lining the road. The Roman Forum is situated in the area between Piazza Venezia and the Colosseum is one of the most important archaeological sites in the world. Three thousand years ago, this valley between Campidoglio and the Quirinal, which was to become the future social and political centre of one of the greatest empires of ancient times, was submerged in marshland. By an incredible invention of engineering, which was commissioned by the last two Etruscan kings, the so-called Cloaca Maxima, a canal that is still in function to this very day, allowed for the drainage of the land. The area soon began to develop and already at the end of the 7th century BC, it was home to many markets and a hive of social activity. Foro was the name that the Romans gave to the central square of the urban settlement and we must try to imagine this busy, crowded place as the pulsing centre of a modern city. Here the masses would flock to see the meetings of the orators, attend criminal trials and discuss internal politics or the latest military campaigns, or quite simply to comment on the games or running races (an activity that the Romans particularly enjoyed). In the area around the Forum, the city was also home to markets, shops and taverns. You could also find the typical Termopolia, which were the ancient equivalent of today's fast food restaurants. In short, the Forum was the heart and soul of city life. It was in Caesar's time, when Rome has become the capital of a vast empire, that the Forum became a place for celebrations and in the Imperial era it was the symbol of the Empire. The most incredible panoramic view of the entire Forum complex can be seen from the magnificent terraces of Campidoglio. Here you can observe the imposing ruins of Basilica Emilia, the only remaining Republican basilica, or the Curia, which was once the seat of the Senate. Nearby you will also note three trees, a vine, fig and olive tree, cited by Pliny the Elder, which were replanted in recent times. Starting from the Arch of Septimius Severus, the pathway winds through the most unique place in the world and passes beside the imposing Basilica di Massenzio, one of the most magnificent buildings of Imperial Rome, and ends near the Arch of Titus, where you will get a glimpse of the unmistakable Colosseum. During the Middle Ages, the Forum fell into a state of ruin and was abandoned. Its monuments were often used to build medieval fortifications and at times were even completely dismantled and their materials used elsewhere. In those times, the area was used for cultivation and grazing and it took on the name of 'Campo Vaccino', or 'cattle field'. It was only in the eighteenth century that the Forum was rediscovered and finally the definitive process of the recovery of the ancient ruins began, bringing this long-forgotten and barbarically plundered historic patrimony back to life.
110
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Forum Romanum
5/6 Via della Salara Vecchia
110
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
The Roman Forum was the pulsing heart of Rome, the city’s main piazza where citizens of every social level met to exchange opinions, do business, buy in the markets and renew their strength over a tasty dish and a cup of good wine. An enormous crowd gathered there every day. Walking through the Forum one might meet rich merchants in precious clothes and sandals; or barefoot serving girls carrying baskets full of produce; reclining Roman nobles on a litter carried by slaves or sellers yelling full voiced to attract the customers. There was an overwhelming mix of colors, smells and merchandise for sale, of thousands of different faces from all parts of the world as it was known then. Rome was a cosmopolitan city, filled with people from Africa, Europe and the Middle East. Along its streets one could go from one extreme to another; from the smiles of the Roman women to the prostitutes on the street corners, from the perfume of temple incense to the pungent smells of cooking food, from the gold of the monuments to the vagabonds lining the road. The Roman Forum is situated in the area between Piazza Venezia and the Colosseum is one of the most important archaeological sites in the world. Three thousand years ago, this valley between Campidoglio and the Quirinal, which was to become the future social and political centre of one of the greatest empires of ancient times, was submerged in marshland. By an incredible invention of engineering, which was commissioned by the last two Etruscan kings, the so-called Cloaca Maxima, a canal that is still in function to this very day, allowed for the drainage of the land. The area soon began to develop and already at the end of the 7th century BC, it was home to many markets and a hive of social activity. Foro was the name that the Romans gave to the central square of the urban settlement and we must try to imagine this busy, crowded place as the pulsing centre of a modern city. Here the masses would flock to see the meetings of the orators, attend criminal trials and discuss internal politics or the latest military campaigns, or quite simply to comment on the games or running races (an activity that the Romans particularly enjoyed). In the area around the Forum, the city was also home to markets, shops and taverns. You could also find the typical Termopolia, which were the ancient equivalent of today's fast food restaurants. In short, the Forum was the heart and soul of city life. It was in Caesar's time, when Rome has become the capital of a vast empire, that the Forum became a place for celebrations and in the Imperial era it was the symbol of the Empire. The most incredible panoramic view of the entire Forum complex can be seen from the magnificent terraces of Campidoglio. Here you can observe the imposing ruins of Basilica Emilia, the only remaining Republican basilica, or the Curia, which was once the seat of the Senate. Nearby you will also note three trees, a vine, fig and olive tree, cited by Pliny the Elder, which were replanted in recent times. Starting from the Arch of Septimius Severus, the pathway winds through the most unique place in the world and passes beside the imposing Basilica di Massenzio, one of the most magnificent buildings of Imperial Rome, and ends near the Arch of Titus, where you will get a glimpse of the unmistakable Colosseum. During the Middle Ages, the Forum fell into a state of ruin and was abandoned. Its monuments were often used to build medieval fortifications and at times were even completely dismantled and their materials used elsewhere. In those times, the area was used for cultivation and grazing and it took on the name of 'Campo Vaccino', or 'cattle field'. It was only in the eighteenth century that the Forum was rediscovered and finally the definitive process of the recovery of the ancient ruins began, bringing this long-forgotten and barbarically plundered historic patrimony back to life.
Trevi Fountain You will not find any other place in the world that celebrates the ever-mutating and incredible power of water like Rome. The Trevi Fountain is a fantastic work of art that is much more than a mere sculpture. This triumphant example of Baroque art with its soft, natural lines and fantasy creatures embodies movement as the soul of the world. The fountain is a true wonder, a jewel of water and stone that is nestled between the palaces of the historic centre of the city. You can already hear its presence from the nearby streets. Indeed, as you get nearer the sound of its gushing waters grows constantly more intense, reaching a crescendo in the square, where you will find the most breathtaking sight. Suddenly, the space seems to open out and you stand before a symbolic representation of this great force of nature, a tumultuous spring that seems to flow out of the ground. The light and shade effects on the marble make the wind seem to bellow through the drapes and locks of the statues, agitating the waves, creating an extraordinarily intense and spectacular scene. In this Baroque creation, the architecture itself seems to come alive with the current of the revitalising waters. Even the palace in the background blends perfectly with the compositionand the game of space and mass gives an air of movement to the entire statue. The central feature of the monument is a chariot in the shape of a shell, drawn by seahorses with Triton as their guide. Before the enormous central niche stands Oceanus. To the side are the statues of Abundance and Salubrity. All around, natural and artificial forms merge together in a representation of rocks and petrified vegetation that run along the foundation of the palace and around the borders of the pool, which represents the sea. This unique statue has an ancient history. Its origins go back to Roman timesand it was the terminal point of the Aqua Virgo aqueduct commissioned by Augustus, which was used to provide water for the thermal baths. The water that flows here has two names: Virgin Waters and Trevi. The first refers to an ancient legend about a young Roman girl who showed the source of the spring to some thirsty soldiers; whereas Trevi derives from the old name for the area,which was originally called Trebium. The aqueduct continued to function, even though it was necessary to wait until the eighteenth century when Pope Clement XII decided to restore the Trevi district and began work on the fountain we know today. It took three centuries to complete and is often attributed to Bernini, but for the most part it is the work of the Roman architect, Nicola Salvi, who took twenty years to complete it. This work of art is so famous that even cinema has commemorated it on more than one occasion. Everyone remembers the scene in the renowned Italian film, "La Dolce Vita" by Fellini; on a quiet night in an almost unreal Rome, an alluring Anita Ekberg jumps into the Trevi Fountain with her clothes on and invites Marcello Mastroianni to join her. Coin throwin There is also another curious tradition regarding the Trevi Fountain. It is said that if you throw a coin over your shoulder into the water, you will be sure to return to Rome. An estimated 3,000 euros in coins are thrown into the fountain every day.
329
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Trevi Fountain
329
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Trevi Fountain You will not find any other place in the world that celebrates the ever-mutating and incredible power of water like Rome. The Trevi Fountain is a fantastic work of art that is much more than a mere sculpture. This triumphant example of Baroque art with its soft, natural lines and fantasy creatures embodies movement as the soul of the world. The fountain is a true wonder, a jewel of water and stone that is nestled between the palaces of the historic centre of the city. You can already hear its presence from the nearby streets. Indeed, as you get nearer the sound of its gushing waters grows constantly more intense, reaching a crescendo in the square, where you will find the most breathtaking sight. Suddenly, the space seems to open out and you stand before a symbolic representation of this great force of nature, a tumultuous spring that seems to flow out of the ground. The light and shade effects on the marble make the wind seem to bellow through the drapes and locks of the statues, agitating the waves, creating an extraordinarily intense and spectacular scene. In this Baroque creation, the architecture itself seems to come alive with the current of the revitalising waters. Even the palace in the background blends perfectly with the compositionand the game of space and mass gives an air of movement to the entire statue. The central feature of the monument is a chariot in the shape of a shell, drawn by seahorses with Triton as their guide. Before the enormous central niche stands Oceanus. To the side are the statues of Abundance and Salubrity. All around, natural and artificial forms merge together in a representation of rocks and petrified vegetation that run along the foundation of the palace and around the borders of the pool, which represents the sea. This unique statue has an ancient history. Its origins go back to Roman timesand it was the terminal point of the Aqua Virgo aqueduct commissioned by Augustus, which was used to provide water for the thermal baths. The water that flows here has two names: Virgin Waters and Trevi. The first refers to an ancient legend about a young Roman girl who showed the source of the spring to some thirsty soldiers; whereas Trevi derives from the old name for the area,which was originally called Trebium. The aqueduct continued to function, even though it was necessary to wait until the eighteenth century when Pope Clement XII decided to restore the Trevi district and began work on the fountain we know today. It took three centuries to complete and is often attributed to Bernini, but for the most part it is the work of the Roman architect, Nicola Salvi, who took twenty years to complete it. This work of art is so famous that even cinema has commemorated it on more than one occasion. Everyone remembers the scene in the renowned Italian film, "La Dolce Vita" by Fellini; on a quiet night in an almost unreal Rome, an alluring Anita Ekberg jumps into the Trevi Fountain with her clothes on and invites Marcello Mastroianni to join her. Coin throwin There is also another curious tradition regarding the Trevi Fountain. It is said that if you throw a coin over your shoulder into the water, you will be sure to return to Rome. An estimated 3,000 euros in coins are thrown into the fountain every day.
Circus Maximus What visitors see today is a large oblong field that modern-day Romans go for walks in. But Circus Maximus today is not so very different to what the ancient Romans saw when they first started to use this small valley between two of Rome’s hills, the Palatine and the Aventine, for sports. People sat on the ground on the slopes to watch sporting events. The shape and structure of the Circus Maximus changed as fast as Rome grew and with the importance of chariot racing, one of the great Roman passions. But what was Circus Maximus like then? Well, actually we don’t know. The first building, built in the VII century B.C. by Tarquinius Priscus was made of wood, but in its moment of splendour, Circus Maximus would have completely been covered in marble and travertine stone; in the centre of the track were two large Egyptian obelisks, one of which, from the time of Ramses II, can now be found in Piazza del Popolo, the other from the reign of Thutmosis III from Thebes, in Piazza S. Giovanni in Laterano. Circus Maximus is the biggest sports stadium ever built. Just think it could hold almost three hundred and eighty thousand visitors with free access to races. Almost four times bigger than the biggest stadium today, an incredible number. Its structures couldn’t have been much different from our horse racing tracks. Imagine watching a chariot race surrounded by the cheering and clapping of thousands of people, betting huge fortunes on the races, eating, arguing and cheering their champions on just like modern fans. Excitement, risk and tension were vital ingredients of the race. Four teams (the factions) took part in each race, each with an identifying colour; they were so popular and important that they ended up becoming actual political parties. Classical races were those with the drivers, called “charioteers”, were hired and sold to other teams for sums much like those spent today to buy sports champions. Prizes were magnificent. Diocles, the greatest Roman charioteer, stopped racing when his riches amounted to the equivalent of 7 million euros today. The most important races took place during the Roman Games, from 4 to 18 September. The excited crowd was stimulated by organizers using different tactics, of which the most original was small parcels full of sweets, money or presents showered down on the crowd. The historian Suetonius even mentions presents like: houses, farms, ships, not so different to what we see in so many of our television programmes today. Races went from morning till night, up to a hundred a day. Each lasted seven laps indicated by a mechanical counter placed in the centre of the track which, as each chariot drove by, raised large wooden eggs or bronze dolphins (a symbol of the horse protecting Gods). But Circus Maximus was not just for races: Caesar simulated a battle with about one thousand foot-soldiers, six hundred cavalry and forty elephants. To add variety to events, during the intervals between races they put on acrobatics or fights between exotic animals. The races were really dangerous, often bloody, anything was allowed. Crashes between chariots were normal. Chronicles of the day tell of violent, often fatal crashes, and give the names of the young charioteers who died in the ruins of their chariots. But it was not just the race that was dangerous. Over-excited Emperors like Vitellius or Caracalla could have a team killed just because it threatened the victory of their favourites or because it had disappointed them. Watching a race at Circus Maximus was not just dangerous for athletes, but for spectators too. Lots of stories tell of fatal accidents involving the audience. During one race a herd of elephants knocked down an iron fence and injured many people. It was a regular occurrence for a chariot to lose control and crash into the public, with dramatic results. Going to the circus was also an important social event. The poet Ovid in his famous manual on the art of love said that the circus was the best place for lovers to meet. He said that race fever combined with the elegant flirtatiousness of women’s clothing helped erotic meetings. And as often happened next to arenas and stadiums, Circus Maximus had its fair share of places where the Romans enjoyed pleasures of varying kinds, such as taverns or brothels. Over the centuries, Circus Maximus was damaged by fire several times. It is well known that the famous fire of Rome (the one that legend says was started by Nero) began on one of the short sides of the Circus (the one where we can now still see the brick remains), but after each fire Circus Maximus was repaired, rebuilt and even enlarged straight away. The last games were organised around 549 A.D. In the Middle Ages it became a fortified area as the small Frangipane tower shows. Then, due to the urban decentralization suffered by the area, Circus Maximus fell into disuse and slowly began to fall apart due to the stealing of marble and stone and the progressive sinking into the ground that still covers a large part of the building today. Circus Maximus has again become popular with young people, thanks to events such as concerts and shows, sometimes with internationally famous artists. So, two thousand seven hundred years later, tradition lives on.
99
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Circus Maximus
99
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Circus Maximus What visitors see today is a large oblong field that modern-day Romans go for walks in. But Circus Maximus today is not so very different to what the ancient Romans saw when they first started to use this small valley between two of Rome’s hills, the Palatine and the Aventine, for sports. People sat on the ground on the slopes to watch sporting events. The shape and structure of the Circus Maximus changed as fast as Rome grew and with the importance of chariot racing, one of the great Roman passions. But what was Circus Maximus like then? Well, actually we don’t know. The first building, built in the VII century B.C. by Tarquinius Priscus was made of wood, but in its moment of splendour, Circus Maximus would have completely been covered in marble and travertine stone; in the centre of the track were two large Egyptian obelisks, one of which, from the time of Ramses II, can now be found in Piazza del Popolo, the other from the reign of Thutmosis III from Thebes, in Piazza S. Giovanni in Laterano. Circus Maximus is the biggest sports stadium ever built. Just think it could hold almost three hundred and eighty thousand visitors with free access to races. Almost four times bigger than the biggest stadium today, an incredible number. Its structures couldn’t have been much different from our horse racing tracks. Imagine watching a chariot race surrounded by the cheering and clapping of thousands of people, betting huge fortunes on the races, eating, arguing and cheering their champions on just like modern fans. Excitement, risk and tension were vital ingredients of the race. Four teams (the factions) took part in each race, each with an identifying colour; they were so popular and important that they ended up becoming actual political parties. Classical races were those with the drivers, called “charioteers”, were hired and sold to other teams for sums much like those spent today to buy sports champions. Prizes were magnificent. Diocles, the greatest Roman charioteer, stopped racing when his riches amounted to the equivalent of 7 million euros today. The most important races took place during the Roman Games, from 4 to 18 September. The excited crowd was stimulated by organizers using different tactics, of which the most original was small parcels full of sweets, money or presents showered down on the crowd. The historian Suetonius even mentions presents like: houses, farms, ships, not so different to what we see in so many of our television programmes today. Races went from morning till night, up to a hundred a day. Each lasted seven laps indicated by a mechanical counter placed in the centre of the track which, as each chariot drove by, raised large wooden eggs or bronze dolphins (a symbol of the horse protecting Gods). But Circus Maximus was not just for races: Caesar simulated a battle with about one thousand foot-soldiers, six hundred cavalry and forty elephants. To add variety to events, during the intervals between races they put on acrobatics or fights between exotic animals. The races were really dangerous, often bloody, anything was allowed. Crashes between chariots were normal. Chronicles of the day tell of violent, often fatal crashes, and give the names of the young charioteers who died in the ruins of their chariots. But it was not just the race that was dangerous. Over-excited Emperors like Vitellius or Caracalla could have a team killed just because it threatened the victory of their favourites or because it had disappointed them. Watching a race at Circus Maximus was not just dangerous for athletes, but for spectators too. Lots of stories tell of fatal accidents involving the audience. During one race a herd of elephants knocked down an iron fence and injured many people. It was a regular occurrence for a chariot to lose control and crash into the public, with dramatic results. Going to the circus was also an important social event. The poet Ovid in his famous manual on the art of love said that the circus was the best place for lovers to meet. He said that race fever combined with the elegant flirtatiousness of women’s clothing helped erotic meetings. And as often happened next to arenas and stadiums, Circus Maximus had its fair share of places where the Romans enjoyed pleasures of varying kinds, such as taverns or brothels. Over the centuries, Circus Maximus was damaged by fire several times. It is well known that the famous fire of Rome (the one that legend says was started by Nero) began on one of the short sides of the Circus (the one where we can now still see the brick remains), but after each fire Circus Maximus was repaired, rebuilt and even enlarged straight away. The last games were organised around 549 A.D. In the Middle Ages it became a fortified area as the small Frangipane tower shows. Then, due to the urban decentralization suffered by the area, Circus Maximus fell into disuse and slowly began to fall apart due to the stealing of marble and stone and the progressive sinking into the ground that still covers a large part of the building today. Circus Maximus has again become popular with young people, thanks to events such as concerts and shows, sometimes with internationally famous artists. So, two thousand seven hundred years later, tradition lives on.
Spanish Steps - Piazza di Spagna With its characteristic butterfly plan, the Spanish Steps or Piazza di Spagna is one of the most famous images in the world, as well as being one of the most majestic urban monuments of Roman Baroque style. In the Renaissance period, the square was the most popular tourist attraction in the city: it attracted artists and writers alike and was full of elegant hotels, inns and residences. At the end of the seventeenth century, it was called Trinità dei Monti, after the church that dominates the square from above, but it was later given the name we know today after the Spanish Ambassador who lived there. At the foot of the stairs, you will find the famous Barcaccia Fountain, the work of Pietro Bernini and his son, Gian Lorenzo. The latter went on to become the creator of some of the most important masterpieces of Baroque art in the city, including the renowned baldachino of St. Peter's Basilica. With its characteristic form of a sinking ship, the fountain recalls the historic flood of the River Tiber in 1598 and refers to a folk legend whereby a fishing boat carried away by the flood of the river was found at this exact spot. In reality, the sinking boat was ably invented by Bernini to overcome a technical problem due to low water pressure. The sun and bee ornamentation is a symbol of the Barberini family and a reference to Pope Urban VIII who commissioned the work. However, the main attraction of the square has to be the spectacular staircase of Trinità dei Monti. Built on the request of Innocent XII and created by Francesco De Sanctis in the eighteenth century, this daring architectural feat with its ramps and stairs that intersect and open out like a fan definitively provided a solution for connecting the square and the Trinità Church above, providing the city with a particularly intriguing attraction that is adored by tourists from all over the world. The sight of the square in spring should not be missed, when the ramps of the staircase are literally covered with flowers and the architecture is playfully lost beneath a magnificent array of colour.
155
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Piazza di Spagna
155
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Spanish Steps - Piazza di Spagna With its characteristic butterfly plan, the Spanish Steps or Piazza di Spagna is one of the most famous images in the world, as well as being one of the most majestic urban monuments of Roman Baroque style. In the Renaissance period, the square was the most popular tourist attraction in the city: it attracted artists and writers alike and was full of elegant hotels, inns and residences. At the end of the seventeenth century, it was called Trinità dei Monti, after the church that dominates the square from above, but it was later given the name we know today after the Spanish Ambassador who lived there. At the foot of the stairs, you will find the famous Barcaccia Fountain, the work of Pietro Bernini and his son, Gian Lorenzo. The latter went on to become the creator of some of the most important masterpieces of Baroque art in the city, including the renowned baldachino of St. Peter's Basilica. With its characteristic form of a sinking ship, the fountain recalls the historic flood of the River Tiber in 1598 and refers to a folk legend whereby a fishing boat carried away by the flood of the river was found at this exact spot. In reality, the sinking boat was ably invented by Bernini to overcome a technical problem due to low water pressure. The sun and bee ornamentation is a symbol of the Barberini family and a reference to Pope Urban VIII who commissioned the work. However, the main attraction of the square has to be the spectacular staircase of Trinità dei Monti. Built on the request of Innocent XII and created by Francesco De Sanctis in the eighteenth century, this daring architectural feat with its ramps and stairs that intersect and open out like a fan definitively provided a solution for connecting the square and the Trinità Church above, providing the city with a particularly intriguing attraction that is adored by tourists from all over the world. The sight of the square in spring should not be missed, when the ramps of the staircase are literally covered with flowers and the architecture is playfully lost beneath a magnificent array of colour.
From the very beginnings of the city, the Capitoline, one of Rome’s seven hills, was the seat of divinity and of power and, notwithstanding its being the lowest and smallest of the hills, it grew in importance to become not only one of Rome’s most important piazzas but one of the most famous places in the whole world. Thanks to its dominating position over the plain where Rome would eventually be born, the Capitoline hill has been inhabited since the Bronze Age. Its name more than likely derives from the temple of Capitoline Jove, the most important temple of ancient Rome dedicated to the trinity of Jove, Juno and Minerva. In the beginning, this temple was nothing more than a simple altar; the true temple was probably begun by the last two kings of Rome and completed around the beginning of the Republic. When triumphant generals returned from victorious battles, it was here that the final sacrifice of the majestic celebratory ceremonies took place. The temple of Capitoline Jove wasn’t the only temple on the hill: where today sits the ancient church of Santa Maria in Aracoeli, there was originally the Temple of Juno Moneta (“Moneta”, which is Italian for “money”, originally signified warning or admonishing) and comes from the Latin word “moneo”, to advise) and it’s inside this temple that Rome’s first mint was created: so it’s all thanks to the goddess Juno that today the primary means of exchange is called “moneta” or - money! During the Middle Ages, the top of the hill was abandoned and became a weed covered field where goats would pasture, so much so that the Romans came to call it “Goat Hill”. Later, it would become the site of a market and the ancient Roman ruins were reused for sales purposes: for example, an ancient column was hollowed out to measure wine, while to measure grain, nothing less than the original burial urn that once had once held the ashes of Empress Agrippina was utilized. Around the year 1000, the Capitoline became the seat of the city administration, the place where the people would meet to make important decisions. On the sides of the hill, the Tabularium, the ancient Roman archives that had already been transformed into a fortified castle, became the Roman Senate building and the piazza directly in front of it was destined to accomodate public gatherings. Even today, the hill is the center of Roman public life, seat of the mayor’s office and of the town administration. The name Capitoline and its function became famous the world over: so much so that from Capitoline Hill comes the term “capitol”, indicating one of the most important buildings of the city where the government is based: in fact, in Washington DC, the seat of the Congress of the United States is on—Capitol Hill! Visually speaking, today, the Capitoline has taken a back seat with respect to the gigantic Altar of the Fatherland; up until the Altar’s construction, the Capitoline had been the highest point of the area, dominating the forum on one side and the Medieval quarter on the other where Piazza Venezia is now. The perfectly harmonious appearance that has come down to us is a masterpiece of Michelangelo’s brilliance when he created the first monumental piazza of modern Rome. In 1500, in fact, the top of the hill had fallen on hard times and was difficult to reach, so Pope Paul III assigned the artist the job of restoring it, giving Michelangelo’s genius free rein. At that time, there were only two buildings on the Hill: the Senate Building and the Palace of the Conservators. Michelangelo redesigned the facades of the first two buildings and added a third one, where the Capitoline Musems are now. He changed the orientation of the piazza to make it seem less long and narrow. Then he placed the third building at an angle, turning the prospective around and opening it up like a scissors. To complete the work, Michelangelo added a monumental access ramp that gently rises to the piazza. As Saint Peter’s was the religious center, thanks to Michelangelo, the Capitoline became the political center of the city. It was one of his last great accomplishments, a perfect piazza, to be admired and to admire from above the greatness of Rome over the centuries.
59
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Campidoglio
59
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
From the very beginnings of the city, the Capitoline, one of Rome’s seven hills, was the seat of divinity and of power and, notwithstanding its being the lowest and smallest of the hills, it grew in importance to become not only one of Rome’s most important piazzas but one of the most famous places in the whole world. Thanks to its dominating position over the plain where Rome would eventually be born, the Capitoline hill has been inhabited since the Bronze Age. Its name more than likely derives from the temple of Capitoline Jove, the most important temple of ancient Rome dedicated to the trinity of Jove, Juno and Minerva. In the beginning, this temple was nothing more than a simple altar; the true temple was probably begun by the last two kings of Rome and completed around the beginning of the Republic. When triumphant generals returned from victorious battles, it was here that the final sacrifice of the majestic celebratory ceremonies took place. The temple of Capitoline Jove wasn’t the only temple on the hill: where today sits the ancient church of Santa Maria in Aracoeli, there was originally the Temple of Juno Moneta (“Moneta”, which is Italian for “money”, originally signified warning or admonishing) and comes from the Latin word “moneo”, to advise) and it’s inside this temple that Rome’s first mint was created: so it’s all thanks to the goddess Juno that today the primary means of exchange is called “moneta” or - money! During the Middle Ages, the top of the hill was abandoned and became a weed covered field where goats would pasture, so much so that the Romans came to call it “Goat Hill”. Later, it would become the site of a market and the ancient Roman ruins were reused for sales purposes: for example, an ancient column was hollowed out to measure wine, while to measure grain, nothing less than the original burial urn that once had once held the ashes of Empress Agrippina was utilized. Around the year 1000, the Capitoline became the seat of the city administration, the place where the people would meet to make important decisions. On the sides of the hill, the Tabularium, the ancient Roman archives that had already been transformed into a fortified castle, became the Roman Senate building and the piazza directly in front of it was destined to accomodate public gatherings. Even today, the hill is the center of Roman public life, seat of the mayor’s office and of the town administration. The name Capitoline and its function became famous the world over: so much so that from Capitoline Hill comes the term “capitol”, indicating one of the most important buildings of the city where the government is based: in fact, in Washington DC, the seat of the Congress of the United States is on—Capitol Hill! Visually speaking, today, the Capitoline has taken a back seat with respect to the gigantic Altar of the Fatherland; up until the Altar’s construction, the Capitoline had been the highest point of the area, dominating the forum on one side and the Medieval quarter on the other where Piazza Venezia is now. The perfectly harmonious appearance that has come down to us is a masterpiece of Michelangelo’s brilliance when he created the first monumental piazza of modern Rome. In 1500, in fact, the top of the hill had fallen on hard times and was difficult to reach, so Pope Paul III assigned the artist the job of restoring it, giving Michelangelo’s genius free rein. At that time, there were only two buildings on the Hill: the Senate Building and the Palace of the Conservators. Michelangelo redesigned the facades of the first two buildings and added a third one, where the Capitoline Musems are now. He changed the orientation of the piazza to make it seem less long and narrow. Then he placed the third building at an angle, turning the prospective around and opening it up like a scissors. To complete the work, Michelangelo added a monumental access ramp that gently rises to the piazza. As Saint Peter’s was the religious center, thanks to Michelangelo, the Capitoline became the political center of the city. It was one of his last great accomplishments, a perfect piazza, to be admired and to admire from above the greatness of Rome over the centuries.
Immersed in the lush greenery of Villa Borghese, just a few meters from one of the parts of Rome richest in monuments, is the Borghese Gallery, the largest private collection of art in the world. It’s almost impossible to imagine so many works concentrated in one single place: once inside you’re literally surrounded by splendid masterpieces, works of the most celebrated artists in history. The concentration of so much beauty was the work of Cardinal Scipione Borghese. In 1600, he gave the commission for what would become his summer residence to the Dutch architect Van Santen, in italian Vasanzio, who completed it in only a year. The building is nothing more than a “typical” country house, with two towers, a portico, a large entry hall, the whole thing being given the look of a suburban Roman villa. Vasanzio covered the “U”-shaped façade with niches and antique sculptures, part of which were removed in the 19th century. The villa was so perfect that it seemed like a grand Renaissance edifice in miniature. And to think that it was simply the family country home! Cardinal Borghese was famous for being a passionate lover of all forms of art, particularly ancient and contemporary; he was also infamous for his use of any means at his disposal—legal and otherwise— to collect those inestimable treasures. This was how he managed over the course of years to group under a single roof —his!— sculptures and paintings by innumerable artists such as Titian, Raphael and Caravaggio. For instance, he didn’t hesitate to have Raphael’s superb “Deposition” stolen at night from the church of Saint Francis in Perugia, causing the townspeople to riot. Not satisfied, with a simple pretext he confiscated 197 works by the famous painter Cavalier D’Arpino, Caravaggio’s teacher, and even had the painter Domenichino imprisoned because the artist wouldn’t give the Cardinal his exquisite Hunt of Diana, ordered by another client. Besides an expert eye, the cardinal also had a nose for new talent, such that he surrounded himself with young artists who produced beautiful works to adorn the Gallery halls. One example will do for all: the great Gian Lorenzo Bernini, just 20 years old, created masterpieces of sculpture such as “Apollo and Daphne”, “David” and “The Rape of Proserpine”, that are today at the center of one of the richest and most fascinating rooms of the museum. And of course, there’s a portrait of the owner of the house: in fact, there are two of them, one next to the other. While sculpting the portrait, Bernini realized that the marble block on which he was working was defective, so, rather than disappoint his benefactor, he created a second bust, identical to the first —in a single night. Various vicissitudes over the centuries have brought both new acquisitions and inevitable losses; for example, Camillo Borghese’s sale to Napoleon of more than 500 paintings and antique sculptures that, today, make up the Borghese Fund of the Louvre. Beside these certainly famous works, the museum has many others that are equally well-known: Titian’s “Sacred and Profane Love”, the marvelous “David With Goliath’s Head” by Caravaggio, the “Pietà” of Rubens. But perhaps the most famous statue of all is that of Paolina Borghese sculpted by Canova. At the start of the 1800s, another member of the Borghese family, Camillo, having married Napoleon’s sister, Paolina Bonaparte, had the great sculptor Antonio Canova create this famous image of his wife as the goddess Venus. The sculpture was so perfect that Canova came up with a mechanism that made the statue rotate, to the immense surprise of the villa’s guests, so that it could be admired from all sides! The museum is a marvelous voyage in time that allows us to admire works from different eras brought together in one harmonious whole, while we are observed by the vigilant and immortal glances of some of the most celebrated artwork of all time.
Galleria Borghese
Immersed in the lush greenery of Villa Borghese, just a few meters from one of the parts of Rome richest in monuments, is the Borghese Gallery, the largest private collection of art in the world. It’s almost impossible to imagine so many works concentrated in one single place: once inside you’re literally surrounded by splendid masterpieces, works of the most celebrated artists in history. The concentration of so much beauty was the work of Cardinal Scipione Borghese. In 1600, he gave the commission for what would become his summer residence to the Dutch architect Van Santen, in italian Vasanzio, who completed it in only a year. The building is nothing more than a “typical” country house, with two towers, a portico, a large entry hall, the whole thing being given the look of a suburban Roman villa. Vasanzio covered the “U”-shaped façade with niches and antique sculptures, part of which were removed in the 19th century. The villa was so perfect that it seemed like a grand Renaissance edifice in miniature. And to think that it was simply the family country home! Cardinal Borghese was famous for being a passionate lover of all forms of art, particularly ancient and contemporary; he was also infamous for his use of any means at his disposal—legal and otherwise— to collect those inestimable treasures. This was how he managed over the course of years to group under a single roof —his!— sculptures and paintings by innumerable artists such as Titian, Raphael and Caravaggio. For instance, he didn’t hesitate to have Raphael’s superb “Deposition” stolen at night from the church of Saint Francis in Perugia, causing the townspeople to riot. Not satisfied, with a simple pretext he confiscated 197 works by the famous painter Cavalier D’Arpino, Caravaggio’s teacher, and even had the painter Domenichino imprisoned because the artist wouldn’t give the Cardinal his exquisite Hunt of Diana, ordered by another client. Besides an expert eye, the cardinal also had a nose for new talent, such that he surrounded himself with young artists who produced beautiful works to adorn the Gallery halls. One example will do for all: the great Gian Lorenzo Bernini, just 20 years old, created masterpieces of sculpture such as “Apollo and Daphne”, “David” and “The Rape of Proserpine”, that are today at the center of one of the richest and most fascinating rooms of the museum. And of course, there’s a portrait of the owner of the house: in fact, there are two of them, one next to the other. While sculpting the portrait, Bernini realized that the marble block on which he was working was defective, so, rather than disappoint his benefactor, he created a second bust, identical to the first —in a single night. Various vicissitudes over the centuries have brought both new acquisitions and inevitable losses; for example, Camillo Borghese’s sale to Napoleon of more than 500 paintings and antique sculptures that, today, make up the Borghese Fund of the Louvre. Beside these certainly famous works, the museum has many others that are equally well-known: Titian’s “Sacred and Profane Love”, the marvelous “David With Goliath’s Head” by Caravaggio, the “Pietà” of Rubens. But perhaps the most famous statue of all is that of Paolina Borghese sculpted by Canova. At the start of the 1800s, another member of the Borghese family, Camillo, having married Napoleon’s sister, Paolina Bonaparte, had the great sculptor Antonio Canova create this famous image of his wife as the goddess Venus. The sculpture was so perfect that Canova came up with a mechanism that made the statue rotate, to the immense surprise of the villa’s guests, so that it could be admired from all sides! The museum is a marvelous voyage in time that allows us to admire works from different eras brought together in one harmonious whole, while we are observed by the vigilant and immortal glances of some of the most celebrated artwork of all time.
The Mouth of Truth (La Bocca della Verità) In the portico of the Paleochristian church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, at the foot of the Aventine hills, a Roman statue is conserved that has attracted the attention and curiosity of tourists from all over the world. It is the "Bocca della Verità", which in English means the Mouth of Truth, an ancient stone mask from the Classical period that represents a river god with an open mouth, wide eyes and a flowing mane of hair. The reason for its unshakeable fame is a rather macabre legend associated with the mask since ancient times. If a liar puts their hand inside its mouth, they will lose it. This legend probably originates from Roman times. It is said that the rich wife of a Roman noble was accused of adultery. The woman denied the accusations, but her husband wanted to put her to the test by making her hand inside the stone mouth. Knowing perfectly well that she was lying, the woman used a very clever strategy. In front of a group of curious bystanders who had gathered around the Mouth of Truth, the man who was actually her lover embraced her and kissed her. She pretended that she didn't know him and accused him of being a madman and the crowd chased him away. When she put her hand into the mouth, the woman declared that she had never kissed any other man apart from her husband and the poor madman who had just kissed her. In this way she was certain that she hadn't lied and her hand was saved. The betrayed husband saved her honour, but the Mouth of Truth lost its credibility and it is said that since that day it no longer carried out its function as a right and unappeasable judge. The mask is so famous that even Hollywood honoured it in a film about the city called Roman Holiday. In one of the most memorable scenes, Gregory Peck, in front of a terrified Audrey Hepburn, daringly challenges the mask by putting his hand inside its mouth. Even today, this ancient mask is the cause of queues of tourists who line up outside the beautiful Paleochristian church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin. The thrill of the risk is evidently too strong and you honestly can't resist putting your hand inside this harmless, but unsettling stone face and hope for the best! Santa Maria in Cosmedin This church was founded in the 6th century on the ruins of the statio annonae, the food-distribution center of classical Rome. Enlarged by Pope Hadrian I in the 8th century, it was given to the Greek community who lived near the Tiber, in a district called the Ripa Grecae. From that time the church was known as Santa Maria in Cosmedin, after the name of a quarter in Constantinople, Beneath the portico is the famous mouth of truth (Bocca della verità). Throughout its history this church was repeatedly restored and redecorated, especially in the 12th and 13th centuries. Noteworthy features include the portico, the elegant Romanesque campanile, the schola cantorum (choir), the rich Cosmatesque pavement and decorations, and the Gothic baldacchino over the high altar. In the sacristy there is a fragment of 8th-century mosaic from the original St Peter's Basilica. The block of tufa from which the tiny crypt was hollowed out is thought to be the remains of an altar from the Forum Boarium erected in honor of Hercules (in view of his victory over the giant Cacus, who stole his cattle). At the end of the last century, the architect Giovanni Battista Giovenale gave the church its excessively medieval appearance.
56
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Mouth of Truth
56
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
The Mouth of Truth (La Bocca della Verità) In the portico of the Paleochristian church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, at the foot of the Aventine hills, a Roman statue is conserved that has attracted the attention and curiosity of tourists from all over the world. It is the "Bocca della Verità", which in English means the Mouth of Truth, an ancient stone mask from the Classical period that represents a river god with an open mouth, wide eyes and a flowing mane of hair. The reason for its unshakeable fame is a rather macabre legend associated with the mask since ancient times. If a liar puts their hand inside its mouth, they will lose it. This legend probably originates from Roman times. It is said that the rich wife of a Roman noble was accused of adultery. The woman denied the accusations, but her husband wanted to put her to the test by making her hand inside the stone mouth. Knowing perfectly well that she was lying, the woman used a very clever strategy. In front of a group of curious bystanders who had gathered around the Mouth of Truth, the man who was actually her lover embraced her and kissed her. She pretended that she didn't know him and accused him of being a madman and the crowd chased him away. When she put her hand into the mouth, the woman declared that she had never kissed any other man apart from her husband and the poor madman who had just kissed her. In this way she was certain that she hadn't lied and her hand was saved. The betrayed husband saved her honour, but the Mouth of Truth lost its credibility and it is said that since that day it no longer carried out its function as a right and unappeasable judge. The mask is so famous that even Hollywood honoured it in a film about the city called Roman Holiday. In one of the most memorable scenes, Gregory Peck, in front of a terrified Audrey Hepburn, daringly challenges the mask by putting his hand inside its mouth. Even today, this ancient mask is the cause of queues of tourists who line up outside the beautiful Paleochristian church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin. The thrill of the risk is evidently too strong and you honestly can't resist putting your hand inside this harmless, but unsettling stone face and hope for the best! Santa Maria in Cosmedin This church was founded in the 6th century on the ruins of the statio annonae, the food-distribution center of classical Rome. Enlarged by Pope Hadrian I in the 8th century, it was given to the Greek community who lived near the Tiber, in a district called the Ripa Grecae. From that time the church was known as Santa Maria in Cosmedin, after the name of a quarter in Constantinople, Beneath the portico is the famous mouth of truth (Bocca della verità). Throughout its history this church was repeatedly restored and redecorated, especially in the 12th and 13th centuries. Noteworthy features include the portico, the elegant Romanesque campanile, the schola cantorum (choir), the rich Cosmatesque pavement and decorations, and the Gothic baldacchino over the high altar. In the sacristy there is a fragment of 8th-century mosaic from the original St Peter's Basilica. The block of tufa from which the tiny crypt was hollowed out is thought to be the remains of an altar from the Forum Boarium erected in honor of Hercules (in view of his victory over the giant Cacus, who stole his cattle). At the end of the last century, the architect Giovanni Battista Giovenale gave the church its excessively medieval appearance.
Campo de' Fiori The Campo dei Fiori in the Parione district is one of the jewels of Rome. In the morning it's a bustling marketplace, that transforms into a nightlife centre in the evening – all amid a beautiful setting steeped with history. It has always been the piazza for races, palios, and executions. It is located where the Temple of Venus Victrix stood in ancient Rome, attached to the Theatre of Pompey. The name of the piazza seems to have come from Flora, Pompey's beloved, for he had already built a theatre in the area. It could also have come from the fact that by 1400 the piazza was deserted and had become overgrown with wildflower meadows and vegetable gardens. In the mid-1400s, Pope Callistus III reorganized the whole district and paved the entire area. It was during this renovation work that many elegant palazzos were built: the Palazzo Orsini, for example, is located right on the Campo dei Fiori. It was the Orisinis who gave the little piazza alongside Campo dei Fiorithe name Piazza del Biscione (large snake), because their family crest included an eel. Once the piazza was restored, it became a mandatory place for prominent figures such as ambassadors and cardinals to socialize. All this helped the Campo dei Fiori area become the centre of a thriving horse market held every Monday and Saturday. As could be expected, hotels, inns, and artisan workshops sprung up in the area, making it one of the most vibrant parts of the city and a lively cultural and commercial centre. But Piazza Campo dei Fiori was infamous as well, being the place where executions were carried out. A statue in the centre of the piazza commemorates this fact to passers-by: Giordano Bruno – a philosopher and Dominican monk accused of heresy – was burned alive here on February 17, 1600. His bronze statue was created in 1888 and placed in the centre of the piazza at the exact location of his execution. Over the centuries, the piazza has remained a lively and tumultuous place. Since the second half of the 1800s, it has hosted a vibrant and picturesque daily street market, where you can still sense the soul of the Roman populace among the colourful cries of vendors and the throngs of buyers. Homage to this place was even paid by Italian cinema with a 1943 film, “Campo dei Fiori”. Another idiosyncrasy is that this place is perhaps one of the few “lay” corners of the capital: Campo dei Fiori is the only piazza in Rome without a single church. At sunset Campo dei Fiori transforms into a beloved nightlife haunt. It is packed with young people – Italians and foreigners alike – hanging out at the numerous clubs in the piazza and the neighbouring streets. It is often patrolled by police, who try, sometimes without much success, to prevent excessive partying and rowdiness.
256
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Campo de' Fiori
256
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Campo de' Fiori The Campo dei Fiori in the Parione district is one of the jewels of Rome. In the morning it's a bustling marketplace, that transforms into a nightlife centre in the evening – all amid a beautiful setting steeped with history. It has always been the piazza for races, palios, and executions. It is located where the Temple of Venus Victrix stood in ancient Rome, attached to the Theatre of Pompey. The name of the piazza seems to have come from Flora, Pompey's beloved, for he had already built a theatre in the area. It could also have come from the fact that by 1400 the piazza was deserted and had become overgrown with wildflower meadows and vegetable gardens. In the mid-1400s, Pope Callistus III reorganized the whole district and paved the entire area. It was during this renovation work that many elegant palazzos were built: the Palazzo Orsini, for example, is located right on the Campo dei Fiori. It was the Orisinis who gave the little piazza alongside Campo dei Fiorithe name Piazza del Biscione (large snake), because their family crest included an eel. Once the piazza was restored, it became a mandatory place for prominent figures such as ambassadors and cardinals to socialize. All this helped the Campo dei Fiori area become the centre of a thriving horse market held every Monday and Saturday. As could be expected, hotels, inns, and artisan workshops sprung up in the area, making it one of the most vibrant parts of the city and a lively cultural and commercial centre. But Piazza Campo dei Fiori was infamous as well, being the place where executions were carried out. A statue in the centre of the piazza commemorates this fact to passers-by: Giordano Bruno – a philosopher and Dominican monk accused of heresy – was burned alive here on February 17, 1600. His bronze statue was created in 1888 and placed in the centre of the piazza at the exact location of his execution. Over the centuries, the piazza has remained a lively and tumultuous place. Since the second half of the 1800s, it has hosted a vibrant and picturesque daily street market, where you can still sense the soul of the Roman populace among the colourful cries of vendors and the throngs of buyers. Homage to this place was even paid by Italian cinema with a 1943 film, “Campo dei Fiori”. Another idiosyncrasy is that this place is perhaps one of the few “lay” corners of the capital: Campo dei Fiori is the only piazza in Rome without a single church. At sunset Campo dei Fiori transforms into a beloved nightlife haunt. It is packed with young people – Italians and foreigners alike – hanging out at the numerous clubs in the piazza and the neighbouring streets. It is often patrolled by police, who try, sometimes without much success, to prevent excessive partying and rowdiness.
Piazza del Popolo Between the elegant Pincio, and the banks of the Tevere, Piazza del Popolo yawns into an enormous ellipse. Churches, fountains, monuments, and marble memoirs of historic events in Rome both ancient and modern tastefully embellish the square. Since antiquity, the city's Northern entrance formed a vestibule into the city through the gate in the Aurelian Walls. Though now known as Porta del Popolo, it has had various names over the centuries. Originally called Porta Flaminia by the Emperor Aurelianus who commissioned its construction, during the Early Medieval period, it was called Porta San Valentino, after the nearest Catacomb. Finally the name Porta del Popolo was agreed on, as the church adjoining the gate is Santa Maria del Popolo. Piazza del Popolo itself was known as Piazza del Trullo in the Middle Ages, after the conical fountain which once stood in the centre of the square, reminiscent of a characteristic South-Italian dwelling. Its present name may be due to the poplar tree, known in Latin as "populus" which also meant people, an apt association, as various public events such as fairs, games and dramatic executions were held there. For centuries Piazza del Popolo had a public fountain, a horse trough and a cistern for washerwomen. It was Sixtus V, in 1589, who turned his attention to the square. The Trullo fountain, under the supervision and workmanship of Domenico Fontana, was to be replaced with the Egyptian obelisk of Ramesses II, second in age and height only to the one in San Giovanni,originally brought to the city by the Emperor Augustus, and put in Circus Maximus. Its transportation and installation in Piazza del Popolo gave the square a more regal, less domestic air. Four lions water basin, were added to the obelisk in 1823, during the reign of Pope Leo XII. The next event to prompt work on Piazza del Popolo was the arrival of the Swedish Queen Christina. Desiring to convert to Roman Catholicism, she arrived to Rome in 1655, to a splendid Roman welcome: coming from the North, her first vision was through Porta del Popolo. Bernini had been commissioned to restore the inner façade of the ancient gate in preparation for her arrival. A plaque was placed above the arch, reading: "FELICI FAUSTOQUE INGRESSUI MDCLV" (For a Happy and Propitious Entrance) which remains to this day. Her entrance was so "felicitous" that she never left Rome again. Towards the end of the Seventeen Hundreds, amid the Napoleonic invasion, the ever increasing flood of visitors and pilgrims, descending on Rome through Porta del Popolo, prompted the decision to modernize the square. Till the Eighteen Hundreds, the square had a trapezoidal form which converged on the gate. During the Napoleonic epoch, the French Prefect, Tournon, was head of the "Commission of Embellishments" in Rome. He commissioned Valadier, a Roman architect, to redesign Piazza del Popolo, which he did to stunning effect. Works began in 1816, lasting till 1824 and marked the first time, since the French occupation, that prisoners were not used for works. The project was to take into account the important existing buildings: three churches, Santa Maria Del Popolo, Santa Maria di Montesanto (Saint Mary of Montesanto), Santa Maria dei Miracoli (Saint Mary of Miracles), the obelisk, Porta Del Popolo and Via del Corso, which were to remain untouched. The lateral structures were swept away redefining the square as an ellipse and were replaced by spacious exedras. These supported the fountains of Neptunebetween two tritons, and of the Goddess Roma on either side, added in 1823 during the reign of Pope Leo XII. The square became then accessible from side to side, as well as each end. With a touch of genius, the square was connected to the park on the hill above with a flight of curving steps and ramps, causing the Pincio hill to seem to cascade into the square below. Piazza del Popolo was the last papal contribution to Rome's legendary architecture, and in many ways reflects its splendor, inspiring a sense of awe in the visitor. Emphasizing this supremacy, the three churches dedicated to the Virgin, surrounded the obelisk which, in ancient times had been dedicated to the pagan Sun god. The twin churches at the far end of Piazza del Popolo, which Valadier had incorporated into his plans, had been constructed well over a century earlier. Though initiated by Carlo Rainaldi, they were completed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini with the collaboration of Carlo Fontana. Rainaldi invested the best of his abilities into the design and construction of Santa Maria dei Miracoli. His task was to both inspire and impress travelers entering the city, drawing them across the square to the beauty of the churches beyond. His skill as urban planner was evident. As well as being elevated from the level of the square, the two churches emphasized the elegant lines of the Trident, Via del Babbuino, Via del Corso and Via di Ripetta, radiating out beyond, adding depth and perspective to the overall picture. The observer's attention however, is drawn to the square on the splendid façades and apparent striking symmetry of Santa Maria dei Miracoli and Santa Maria di Montesanto. He also used an element of illusion, as the churches, which appear so similar from a distance, are in fact charmingly individual. Constructing the churches' two façades was no mean feat, as their areas, differed in size, hindered the all important element of symmetry. The problem was overcome using differing dome dimensions. Santa Maria di Montesanto (having a smaller area) has an oval dome, whilst the larger Santa Maria dei Miracoli is circular. The impression from the square however, is of two identical domes. On July 15 1662, the first stone of Santa Maria di Montesanto was laid. After a brief interruption in 1673, construction was continued and completed under the guidance of Bernini and then Carlo Fontana. As both churches were designed with welcoming visitors in mind, their external qualities were prioritized. As well as being monumental scenery, the porticoes of the twin churches, touched with classicism, extended onto the square, breaking with the tradition of the Baroque style, heralding a new architectural age. Fusing the churches with the surrounding square, monuments and streets, creates an harmonious effect, in which one aspect of this body of space, cannot be separated from another. The Church of Santa Maria del Popolo (one of the three churches on the square), was built on the site where, according to tradition, the Emperor Nerowas buried. The church was constructed on request of and paid for by the Roman people (hence the name Saint Mary of the People). Legend tells how Nero's damned spirit was imprisoned in a walnut tree, which had grown above the spot where his body laid. The affrighted neighborhood requested that the tree be burnt down, and a church built there. Dedicated to the Virgin in 1099, it was perceived to have effectively exorcised the area of the ancient and untoward "presences" of demons, witches and uncanny nocturnal sightings of Nero's ghost. The clean simple lines of the Augustinian order in the church's façade was the work of Bernini. Inside are precious paintings by Pinturicchio, Annibale Carracci as well as Caravaggio's moving "Conversion of St Paul" and "Crucifixion of St Peter". Santa Maria del Popolo was the first church in Rome to have a dome with an octagonal tambour. Its brick bell tower in late-Gothic style, is unique too, with a clock, four small pinnacles and characteristic tiling. The Giacomo Acqua barracks, opposite Santa Maria del Popolo were added in the 1823; the small dome was designed to reflect the one of the ancient church, to maintain the square's symmetry. The bars and restaurants on the square are not as historic, as other places of the city, but they are an integral part of Piazza del Popolo, haunted throughout the years by figures dear to Rome, such as Trilussa, Guttuso and Pasolini.
190
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Piazza del Popolo
190
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Piazza del Popolo Between the elegant Pincio, and the banks of the Tevere, Piazza del Popolo yawns into an enormous ellipse. Churches, fountains, monuments, and marble memoirs of historic events in Rome both ancient and modern tastefully embellish the square. Since antiquity, the city's Northern entrance formed a vestibule into the city through the gate in the Aurelian Walls. Though now known as Porta del Popolo, it has had various names over the centuries. Originally called Porta Flaminia by the Emperor Aurelianus who commissioned its construction, during the Early Medieval period, it was called Porta San Valentino, after the nearest Catacomb. Finally the name Porta del Popolo was agreed on, as the church adjoining the gate is Santa Maria del Popolo. Piazza del Popolo itself was known as Piazza del Trullo in the Middle Ages, after the conical fountain which once stood in the centre of the square, reminiscent of a characteristic South-Italian dwelling. Its present name may be due to the poplar tree, known in Latin as "populus" which also meant people, an apt association, as various public events such as fairs, games and dramatic executions were held there. For centuries Piazza del Popolo had a public fountain, a horse trough and a cistern for washerwomen. It was Sixtus V, in 1589, who turned his attention to the square. The Trullo fountain, under the supervision and workmanship of Domenico Fontana, was to be replaced with the Egyptian obelisk of Ramesses II, second in age and height only to the one in San Giovanni,originally brought to the city by the Emperor Augustus, and put in Circus Maximus. Its transportation and installation in Piazza del Popolo gave the square a more regal, less domestic air. Four lions water basin, were added to the obelisk in 1823, during the reign of Pope Leo XII. The next event to prompt work on Piazza del Popolo was the arrival of the Swedish Queen Christina. Desiring to convert to Roman Catholicism, she arrived to Rome in 1655, to a splendid Roman welcome: coming from the North, her first vision was through Porta del Popolo. Bernini had been commissioned to restore the inner façade of the ancient gate in preparation for her arrival. A plaque was placed above the arch, reading: "FELICI FAUSTOQUE INGRESSUI MDCLV" (For a Happy and Propitious Entrance) which remains to this day. Her entrance was so "felicitous" that she never left Rome again. Towards the end of the Seventeen Hundreds, amid the Napoleonic invasion, the ever increasing flood of visitors and pilgrims, descending on Rome through Porta del Popolo, prompted the decision to modernize the square. Till the Eighteen Hundreds, the square had a trapezoidal form which converged on the gate. During the Napoleonic epoch, the French Prefect, Tournon, was head of the "Commission of Embellishments" in Rome. He commissioned Valadier, a Roman architect, to redesign Piazza del Popolo, which he did to stunning effect. Works began in 1816, lasting till 1824 and marked the first time, since the French occupation, that prisoners were not used for works. The project was to take into account the important existing buildings: three churches, Santa Maria Del Popolo, Santa Maria di Montesanto (Saint Mary of Montesanto), Santa Maria dei Miracoli (Saint Mary of Miracles), the obelisk, Porta Del Popolo and Via del Corso, which were to remain untouched. The lateral structures were swept away redefining the square as an ellipse and were replaced by spacious exedras. These supported the fountains of Neptunebetween two tritons, and of the Goddess Roma on either side, added in 1823 during the reign of Pope Leo XII. The square became then accessible from side to side, as well as each end. With a touch of genius, the square was connected to the park on the hill above with a flight of curving steps and ramps, causing the Pincio hill to seem to cascade into the square below. Piazza del Popolo was the last papal contribution to Rome's legendary architecture, and in many ways reflects its splendor, inspiring a sense of awe in the visitor. Emphasizing this supremacy, the three churches dedicated to the Virgin, surrounded the obelisk which, in ancient times had been dedicated to the pagan Sun god. The twin churches at the far end of Piazza del Popolo, which Valadier had incorporated into his plans, had been constructed well over a century earlier. Though initiated by Carlo Rainaldi, they were completed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini with the collaboration of Carlo Fontana. Rainaldi invested the best of his abilities into the design and construction of Santa Maria dei Miracoli. His task was to both inspire and impress travelers entering the city, drawing them across the square to the beauty of the churches beyond. His skill as urban planner was evident. As well as being elevated from the level of the square, the two churches emphasized the elegant lines of the Trident, Via del Babbuino, Via del Corso and Via di Ripetta, radiating out beyond, adding depth and perspective to the overall picture. The observer's attention however, is drawn to the square on the splendid façades and apparent striking symmetry of Santa Maria dei Miracoli and Santa Maria di Montesanto. He also used an element of illusion, as the churches, which appear so similar from a distance, are in fact charmingly individual. Constructing the churches' two façades was no mean feat, as their areas, differed in size, hindered the all important element of symmetry. The problem was overcome using differing dome dimensions. Santa Maria di Montesanto (having a smaller area) has an oval dome, whilst the larger Santa Maria dei Miracoli is circular. The impression from the square however, is of two identical domes. On July 15 1662, the first stone of Santa Maria di Montesanto was laid. After a brief interruption in 1673, construction was continued and completed under the guidance of Bernini and then Carlo Fontana. As both churches were designed with welcoming visitors in mind, their external qualities were prioritized. As well as being monumental scenery, the porticoes of the twin churches, touched with classicism, extended onto the square, breaking with the tradition of the Baroque style, heralding a new architectural age. Fusing the churches with the surrounding square, monuments and streets, creates an harmonious effect, in which one aspect of this body of space, cannot be separated from another. The Church of Santa Maria del Popolo (one of the three churches on the square), was built on the site where, according to tradition, the Emperor Nerowas buried. The church was constructed on request of and paid for by the Roman people (hence the name Saint Mary of the People). Legend tells how Nero's damned spirit was imprisoned in a walnut tree, which had grown above the spot where his body laid. The affrighted neighborhood requested that the tree be burnt down, and a church built there. Dedicated to the Virgin in 1099, it was perceived to have effectively exorcised the area of the ancient and untoward "presences" of demons, witches and uncanny nocturnal sightings of Nero's ghost. The clean simple lines of the Augustinian order in the church's façade was the work of Bernini. Inside are precious paintings by Pinturicchio, Annibale Carracci as well as Caravaggio's moving "Conversion of St Paul" and "Crucifixion of St Peter". Santa Maria del Popolo was the first church in Rome to have a dome with an octagonal tambour. Its brick bell tower in late-Gothic style, is unique too, with a clock, four small pinnacles and characteristic tiling. The Giacomo Acqua barracks, opposite Santa Maria del Popolo were added in the 1823; the small dome was designed to reflect the one of the ancient church, to maintain the square's symmetry. The bars and restaurants on the square are not as historic, as other places of the city, but they are an integral part of Piazza del Popolo, haunted throughout the years by figures dear to Rome, such as Trilussa, Guttuso and Pasolini.
Not far from the Circus Maximus and the Colosseum, at the foot of the Aventine Hill, the Baths of Caracalla are one of the largest and most fascinating monumental buildings of ancient Rome. The baths (“terme” in Italian, from the Greek thèrmai, meaning “hot springs”) were a public bathing facility and also were one of the main forms of entertainment in Rome. People met here, chatted, relaxed. The baths weren’t only for bathing, sports and personal hygiene but were also places to meet, stroll and study. As the name suggests, it was Emperor Caracalla who built them in the 3rd century AD in the southern part of the city. To bring water to the enormous construction, a special branch of the Aqua Marcia aqueduct was built, taking the name of Aqua Antoniniana, from the emperor’s family. The huge project was finished in only 5 years thanks to sophisticated technology and hundreds of slaves. The Latin author Polemius Silvius called the baths of Caracalla one of the seven wonders of Rome. This was the kind of risky and grandiose project that Roman architecture did so well: enormous vaulted ceilings, gigantic arches and openings, all together creating spectacular buildings of truly incredible proportions. They could hold up to 1600 people and the structures that survive today are still extraordinary, even if the fundamental element —water— no longer flows within them. Even though huge and impressive, the baths were actually destined for mass public use of the population in the nearby neighborhoods. Emperors wanting to gain approval of the people would furnish the populace with structures for both entertainment and general hygiene and relaxation, like the baths. Entrance was free and available at any hour of the day or night. The giant complex was composed of a huge central edifice, with the space between it and the surrounding fence occupied by greenery, with the most important halls in the center and the others arranged around them symmetrically. A raised and probably porticoed walkway followed the fence on inside. As in other imperial thermal establishments, entrance was through four doors that opened onto two spaces -probably dressing rooms - next to the huge pool. Passageways and huge central halls were covered by enormous vaulted ceilings. Two rows of gigantic windows let in sunlight from dawn to dusk. The ceilings over the pools were decorated with colored glass tiles that, thanks to the light from the windows and above all, the reflections from the water, glittered and shone, creating a particularly suggestive atmosphere. The bathing ritual was very similar to todays’ spas, beginning with the gymnasium and various exercises that could be practiced both inside and outside, then passing on to the laconicum, the Turkish bath. Right after came the calidarium with its hot water, the tepidarium, warm water, and the frigidarium, a cold water pool. The calidarium structure was overhanging and orientated in such a way as to make best use of the suns’ rays. The frigidarium, larger and richly decorated, was the final phase and which could be walked on either of two absolutely symmetrical sides. The baths finished in the natatium, the great pool. There could be side effects, however: the continuous temperature changes that frequent bathers underwent, passing from hot to cold water in rapid succession, sometimes generated ear and nose pathologies, typical even today in swimmers, that could cause deafness or a deviated septum. Cranial studies of ancient Roman skulls have revealed some of these malformations. The pools were fed by huge cisterns that could contain up to 80.000 cubic meters of water! To heat it, there were enormous underground ovens that spread heated air through the spaces under suspended floors. The ovens were fed with unbelievable quantities of wood and the Romans were sadly famous for having denuded huge tracts of forest land! Underneath the floors were the service areas that allowed for management of the baths far from the eyes of its customers. The intricate complex of subterranean rooms, not visitable at the moment, offers an exceptional spectacle: the huge ovens and other structures, more than three meters tall, that heated the water, are perfectly preserved in this impressive underground labyrinth. It was down here that the largest sanctuary in Rome dedicated to the god Mitra was found, with its opening on the outside of the baths’ fence. Over the course of years, the thermal baths were restored many times until they finally ceased functioning forever in 537, when Vitige, king of the Ostrogoths, cut the acqueduct that fed them during his siege of Rome. The Baths of Caracalla are one of the rare cases in which it’s possible to reconstruct, at least partly, the original decorations. Written sources speak of enormous marble columns, pavements with colored stone from the Orient, mosaics of glass paste and marbled walls, painted stucco and hundreds of colossal statues, both in niches in the walls of the various rooms as well as in the most important halls and gardens. 15th century excavations brought to light the two huge granite tubs that are now in Piazza Farnese, besides numerous other works of art including the Bull and the Farnese Hercules, now in the National Archeological Museum of Naples, and the mosaic with athletes in the Vatican Musuems. Even the Columnn of Justice in Florence, is from the natatio of the Baths of Caracalla! The only area that has yet to emerge from the excavations—and that remains almost a mystery—are the bathrooms (that, in other thermal establishments, are well visible). The fact that they haven’t been found doesn’t however mean that it was tough to find a toilet in ancient Rome: just as in Italy it’s obvious that, to find a toilet, all you have to do is go into a bar and order a coffee, for the Romans, all you had to do was look for a flock of servants waiting outside somewhere, holding their masters’ clothes! Whatever we may think of “toilets” today, at the time of the Romans, it was one of the most important phases of the ritual of the baths: they were the place were all negative bodily fluids were released, and this according to a concept of privacy very different from our own: in a most social atmosphere, seated one next to the other, continuing to discuss and exchange opinions with the other clients; all within one of the most majestic and imposing locations of all antiquity.
136
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Baths of Caracalla
136
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Not far from the Circus Maximus and the Colosseum, at the foot of the Aventine Hill, the Baths of Caracalla are one of the largest and most fascinating monumental buildings of ancient Rome. The baths (“terme” in Italian, from the Greek thèrmai, meaning “hot springs”) were a public bathing facility and also were one of the main forms of entertainment in Rome. People met here, chatted, relaxed. The baths weren’t only for bathing, sports and personal hygiene but were also places to meet, stroll and study. As the name suggests, it was Emperor Caracalla who built them in the 3rd century AD in the southern part of the city. To bring water to the enormous construction, a special branch of the Aqua Marcia aqueduct was built, taking the name of Aqua Antoniniana, from the emperor’s family. The huge project was finished in only 5 years thanks to sophisticated technology and hundreds of slaves. The Latin author Polemius Silvius called the baths of Caracalla one of the seven wonders of Rome. This was the kind of risky and grandiose project that Roman architecture did so well: enormous vaulted ceilings, gigantic arches and openings, all together creating spectacular buildings of truly incredible proportions. They could hold up to 1600 people and the structures that survive today are still extraordinary, even if the fundamental element —water— no longer flows within them. Even though huge and impressive, the baths were actually destined for mass public use of the population in the nearby neighborhoods. Emperors wanting to gain approval of the people would furnish the populace with structures for both entertainment and general hygiene and relaxation, like the baths. Entrance was free and available at any hour of the day or night. The giant complex was composed of a huge central edifice, with the space between it and the surrounding fence occupied by greenery, with the most important halls in the center and the others arranged around them symmetrically. A raised and probably porticoed walkway followed the fence on inside. As in other imperial thermal establishments, entrance was through four doors that opened onto two spaces -probably dressing rooms - next to the huge pool. Passageways and huge central halls were covered by enormous vaulted ceilings. Two rows of gigantic windows let in sunlight from dawn to dusk. The ceilings over the pools were decorated with colored glass tiles that, thanks to the light from the windows and above all, the reflections from the water, glittered and shone, creating a particularly suggestive atmosphere. The bathing ritual was very similar to todays’ spas, beginning with the gymnasium and various exercises that could be practiced both inside and outside, then passing on to the laconicum, the Turkish bath. Right after came the calidarium with its hot water, the tepidarium, warm water, and the frigidarium, a cold water pool. The calidarium structure was overhanging and orientated in such a way as to make best use of the suns’ rays. The frigidarium, larger and richly decorated, was the final phase and which could be walked on either of two absolutely symmetrical sides. The baths finished in the natatium, the great pool. There could be side effects, however: the continuous temperature changes that frequent bathers underwent, passing from hot to cold water in rapid succession, sometimes generated ear and nose pathologies, typical even today in swimmers, that could cause deafness or a deviated septum. Cranial studies of ancient Roman skulls have revealed some of these malformations. The pools were fed by huge cisterns that could contain up to 80.000 cubic meters of water! To heat it, there were enormous underground ovens that spread heated air through the spaces under suspended floors. The ovens were fed with unbelievable quantities of wood and the Romans were sadly famous for having denuded huge tracts of forest land! Underneath the floors were the service areas that allowed for management of the baths far from the eyes of its customers. The intricate complex of subterranean rooms, not visitable at the moment, offers an exceptional spectacle: the huge ovens and other structures, more than three meters tall, that heated the water, are perfectly preserved in this impressive underground labyrinth. It was down here that the largest sanctuary in Rome dedicated to the god Mitra was found, with its opening on the outside of the baths’ fence. Over the course of years, the thermal baths were restored many times until they finally ceased functioning forever in 537, when Vitige, king of the Ostrogoths, cut the acqueduct that fed them during his siege of Rome. The Baths of Caracalla are one of the rare cases in which it’s possible to reconstruct, at least partly, the original decorations. Written sources speak of enormous marble columns, pavements with colored stone from the Orient, mosaics of glass paste and marbled walls, painted stucco and hundreds of colossal statues, both in niches in the walls of the various rooms as well as in the most important halls and gardens. 15th century excavations brought to light the two huge granite tubs that are now in Piazza Farnese, besides numerous other works of art including the Bull and the Farnese Hercules, now in the National Archeological Museum of Naples, and the mosaic with athletes in the Vatican Musuems. Even the Columnn of Justice in Florence, is from the natatio of the Baths of Caracalla! The only area that has yet to emerge from the excavations—and that remains almost a mystery—are the bathrooms (that, in other thermal establishments, are well visible). The fact that they haven’t been found doesn’t however mean that it was tough to find a toilet in ancient Rome: just as in Italy it’s obvious that, to find a toilet, all you have to do is go into a bar and order a coffee, for the Romans, all you had to do was look for a flock of servants waiting outside somewhere, holding their masters’ clothes! Whatever we may think of “toilets” today, at the time of the Romans, it was one of the most important phases of the ritual of the baths: they were the place were all negative bodily fluids were released, and this according to a concept of privacy very different from our own: in a most social atmosphere, seated one next to the other, continuing to discuss and exchange opinions with the other clients; all within one of the most majestic and imposing locations of all antiquity.
Stretching from above Piazza del Popolo to the top of Via Veneto, Villa Borghese crowns Rome in a glorious canopy of Green. Despite the onward march of the years and extensive developmental changes to Rome, Villa Borghese has remained a green and pleasant space, diluting the impact of an otherwise ever expanding urban Metropolis. Villa Borghese is literally a breath of fresh air for those who visit it. There are museums, a theatre, a bio park, a lake, a winter ice skating piste, rollerblade and skateboarders space as well as numerous fountains dotted throughout. The Park was originally a private vineyard, redesigned and enlarged in 1605 to grandiose proportions for pope Paul V's nephew, the Cardinal Scipione Borghese. However, it was named after the Borghese family on the condition that it boasted the most luxurious and magnificent dwelling in Rome. The art museum in the park, was originally designed not only to house the Cardinal's art collection, but also to be a "villa of delights". Various architects, including the Dutch designer Jan Van Staten, known to Italians as Vasanzioand the garden designer Jerome Rainaldi, participated in its creation. The Park was divided into three sections: the first was to be wooded, the second, more artistic, with statues, sculptures and perspectives, and the third more wild and "natural". The Secret Garden, is a charming characteristic which can be found in italian parks and gardens of the Renaissance and Baroque periods, when there was a revival of interest in all things ancient. These lovely enclosed spaces, often near their owners' homes, were reserved for the invited and the privileged. Such places have a lovely atmosphere of seclusion, secrecy and tranquility, adding new dimensions of beauty to their surroundings. Villa Borghese had two "secret spaces": one, shrouded by trees, is the garden of bitter oranges (Giardino dei melangoli) and has a lovely eagle fountain in front of its adjacent mansion; the second "The Flower Garden", is the beautifully laid out formal garden. A third secret garden stretches in front of the Aviary, accompanied by the Meridiana (Sun dial) mansion, designed by Rainaldi. The Secret Gardens are not the only charming corners of Villa Borghese: the Valley of Plain Trees, Piazza di Siena and the Gardens of Muro Torto as well as the Bio Park, which was added later, make it a wonderful place to explore. In the Seventeen Hundreds, after a major expansion and restoration project in the park, the Lake Garden was added to the Valley of the Plain trees by the English designer Jacob Moore. In the same years were built the fake Roman ruins of the Temple of Faustina, the Temple of Diana, and the Clock Building(Casino dell'Orologio) and Piazza di Siena was set up. In the Eighteen Hundreds Luigi Canina embellished Villa Borghese, redesigning the entrance near Piazza del Popolo. In the same year Camillo Borghese, Napoleon Bonaparte's brother in law, transfered much of the splendid art collection in the Villa to Paris. Because the Borghese family opened this essentially private park to the public every sunday and on public holidays, Villa Borghese has always been dear to Romans. During the Nineteenth Century it became a centre for festivals and public events, often with flamboyant and colorful firework displays and water games in the fountains or on the lake. As it is a pleasant place to stroll on a fine day, it became a favorite place for leisure time, with the possibility of a spot of boating (for a small fee) or a visit to the trattoria. The famous Roman poet Gioachino Belli (whose statue, complete with top hat, stands in Trastevere) celebrated Villa Borghese in the words: «Long live the heart of Prince Borghese». The park had truly evolved into a place for leisure and pleasure. This private park for the aristocracy, and at the same time, playground for the people, became a focal point of the city both for the haves and the have nots. The numerous birds in the Aviary, the wild and exotic animals which roamed the park, even before the Bio Park was built, and the special making of icy drinks and sorbets in summer with " snow preserves" all made it enormously popular. Villa Borghese's fame also stretched beyond Rome's walls. The Borghesefamily hosted and patronized numerous noble and noted european figures, including Goethe and Stendhal, raising Villa Borghese's profile and ensuring its inclusion on the list of must sees of the Grand Tour. At the dawn of the Twentieth Century, after a long dispute with the Borghesefamily, the Italian State bought the park, which was then bestowed on the Rome City Council, and opened "full time" to the public. Although the Villa was then named after the murdered king Umberto I, in affectionate memory of its roots, Romans continued to call it Villa Borghese. Villa Borghese remains one of Rome's abiding pleasures and attractions for Romans and visitors alike. Being ideal venue for musical concerts, there are many throughout the summer season. The intimate and charming cinema there, was entered in the Guinness book of Records as the world's smallest picture house, converted from an old bar. The Restaurants, and the wonderful replica of London's Shakespearean Globe Theatre, are also well worth a visit. The peace, graceful trees, relaxing fountains, romantic walkways, evocative views of the city set off to perfection at sundown, the lake and secret gardens make it the perfect spot for a summer afternoon. In the panoramic photo at the top of the page you can see the Temple of Diana. Although it recalls the buildings of ancient times, the temple, situated in Viale della Casina di Raffaello, was built in 1789, as an adjunct of the Villa. Originally it contained an ancient statue of the goddess of hunting.
545
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Villa Borghese
545
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Stretching from above Piazza del Popolo to the top of Via Veneto, Villa Borghese crowns Rome in a glorious canopy of Green. Despite the onward march of the years and extensive developmental changes to Rome, Villa Borghese has remained a green and pleasant space, diluting the impact of an otherwise ever expanding urban Metropolis. Villa Borghese is literally a breath of fresh air for those who visit it. There are museums, a theatre, a bio park, a lake, a winter ice skating piste, rollerblade and skateboarders space as well as numerous fountains dotted throughout. The Park was originally a private vineyard, redesigned and enlarged in 1605 to grandiose proportions for pope Paul V's nephew, the Cardinal Scipione Borghese. However, it was named after the Borghese family on the condition that it boasted the most luxurious and magnificent dwelling in Rome. The art museum in the park, was originally designed not only to house the Cardinal's art collection, but also to be a "villa of delights". Various architects, including the Dutch designer Jan Van Staten, known to Italians as Vasanzioand the garden designer Jerome Rainaldi, participated in its creation. The Park was divided into three sections: the first was to be wooded, the second, more artistic, with statues, sculptures and perspectives, and the third more wild and "natural". The Secret Garden, is a charming characteristic which can be found in italian parks and gardens of the Renaissance and Baroque periods, when there was a revival of interest in all things ancient. These lovely enclosed spaces, often near their owners' homes, were reserved for the invited and the privileged. Such places have a lovely atmosphere of seclusion, secrecy and tranquility, adding new dimensions of beauty to their surroundings. Villa Borghese had two "secret spaces": one, shrouded by trees, is the garden of bitter oranges (Giardino dei melangoli) and has a lovely eagle fountain in front of its adjacent mansion; the second "The Flower Garden", is the beautifully laid out formal garden. A third secret garden stretches in front of the Aviary, accompanied by the Meridiana (Sun dial) mansion, designed by Rainaldi. The Secret Gardens are not the only charming corners of Villa Borghese: the Valley of Plain Trees, Piazza di Siena and the Gardens of Muro Torto as well as the Bio Park, which was added later, make it a wonderful place to explore. In the Seventeen Hundreds, after a major expansion and restoration project in the park, the Lake Garden was added to the Valley of the Plain trees by the English designer Jacob Moore. In the same years were built the fake Roman ruins of the Temple of Faustina, the Temple of Diana, and the Clock Building(Casino dell'Orologio) and Piazza di Siena was set up. In the Eighteen Hundreds Luigi Canina embellished Villa Borghese, redesigning the entrance near Piazza del Popolo. In the same year Camillo Borghese, Napoleon Bonaparte's brother in law, transfered much of the splendid art collection in the Villa to Paris. Because the Borghese family opened this essentially private park to the public every sunday and on public holidays, Villa Borghese has always been dear to Romans. During the Nineteenth Century it became a centre for festivals and public events, often with flamboyant and colorful firework displays and water games in the fountains or on the lake. As it is a pleasant place to stroll on a fine day, it became a favorite place for leisure time, with the possibility of a spot of boating (for a small fee) or a visit to the trattoria. The famous Roman poet Gioachino Belli (whose statue, complete with top hat, stands in Trastevere) celebrated Villa Borghese in the words: «Long live the heart of Prince Borghese». The park had truly evolved into a place for leisure and pleasure. This private park for the aristocracy, and at the same time, playground for the people, became a focal point of the city both for the haves and the have nots. The numerous birds in the Aviary, the wild and exotic animals which roamed the park, even before the Bio Park was built, and the special making of icy drinks and sorbets in summer with " snow preserves" all made it enormously popular. Villa Borghese's fame also stretched beyond Rome's walls. The Borghesefamily hosted and patronized numerous noble and noted european figures, including Goethe and Stendhal, raising Villa Borghese's profile and ensuring its inclusion on the list of must sees of the Grand Tour. At the dawn of the Twentieth Century, after a long dispute with the Borghesefamily, the Italian State bought the park, which was then bestowed on the Rome City Council, and opened "full time" to the public. Although the Villa was then named after the murdered king Umberto I, in affectionate memory of its roots, Romans continued to call it Villa Borghese. Villa Borghese remains one of Rome's abiding pleasures and attractions for Romans and visitors alike. Being ideal venue for musical concerts, there are many throughout the summer season. The intimate and charming cinema there, was entered in the Guinness book of Records as the world's smallest picture house, converted from an old bar. The Restaurants, and the wonderful replica of London's Shakespearean Globe Theatre, are also well worth a visit. The peace, graceful trees, relaxing fountains, romantic walkways, evocative views of the city set off to perfection at sundown, the lake and secret gardens make it the perfect spot for a summer afternoon. In the panoramic photo at the top of the page you can see the Temple of Diana. Although it recalls the buildings of ancient times, the temple, situated in Viale della Casina di Raffaello, was built in 1789, as an adjunct of the Villa. Originally it contained an ancient statue of the goddess of hunting.
Villa Doria Pamphili is a succession of surprising views and historic buildings immersed in the lush vegetation of one of the largest green areas in the city. It has a perimeter of 6.5 km and extends over 184 hectares and, in addition to being a park, it is also a splendid monumental villa, so green that it was also known as the 'Bel Respiro' (Beautiful Breath). One of the accesses to Villa Doria Pamphili is Piazza di San Pancrazio (St Pancras's Square). This place was already talked of in the mediaeval period - the pilgrim itineraries (the old 'guides') indicated the Santuario di San Pancrazio (St Pancras's Sanctuary) to those arriving from the north. This is a beautiful church that, finding itself on a pilgrimage route, could offer a welcome to the wayfarers in its monastery; it also had a Catacomb in its crypt full of valuable frescoes. Today, the underground cemetery contains graffiti, traces of old paintings and lots of loculi making its dark corners even more mysterious. When the estate along the Via Aurelia was bought by Panfilo Pamphili in 1630, there was only the Villa Vecchia, the oldest building, inside it. However, between 1644 and 1652, under the papacy of Innocent X Pamphili, the architects Algardi and Grimaldi built the complex of the Villa Nuova, which became the residence of Camillo Pamphili, the Pope's nephew. At the beginning, the villa was divided into three parts - the building and gardens (pars urbana), the pinewood (pars fructuaria) and the farm (pars rustica), but the Pamphili family had the so-called 'Casino di Allegrezze' designed and built. This was to host parties and large receptions while the park and the 'Giardini di delizie' (Gardens of Delight) were arranged around the Palazzo where the games and pastimes of the Roman nobility were held for many years. The scene must have been enchanting because of the incredible number of rare plants and flowers kept with such care and in such quantity that they could be used to extract perfumes, not counting the oranges, lemons, cedars and ilexes in which coloured birds of various species and from distant places nested. The plants were in decorated terracotta vases or put directly into the ground. 
The scene was completed by lots of fountains, almost all designed by Algardi, fed by a Roman aqueduct that Pope Paul V had refurbished at the end of the 14th century and which took the name of Acquedotto Paolo. Deer and fallow deer, pheasants and many other species of animals kept specially to entertain guests who went hunting, the favourite sport of the nobility, ran free among the poplars and pines in the depths of the woods and glades. Today, after entering by Porta S. Pancrazio, the Arco dei Quattro Venti (the Four Winds Arch) is directly ahead. A little further on there is Palazzina Corsini dating to the 18th century and part of the Villa Corsini from the same century. From here, there is a breathtaking view of the Valle dei Daini (Fallow Deer Valley) where these animals roam freely and which was cleared in 2000 after years of negligence. The Fontana del Giglio lies beyond the pinewood, and features plays of water that flow into the Laghetto del Belvedere (the Belvedere Lake), a natural basin which underwent alterations and extensions over the years without changing the water supply. Only a recent restoration has improved the inflow and outflow of the water while the historic paths created for the beauty spots ('belvedere') have been rearranged. The Cappella Doria Pamphili (Doria Pamphili Chapel), a little way away, was the last of the buildings constructed in the villa between 1896 and 1902. The Villa Vecchia or Casino di Famiglia, the original building, is on the side of the Via Aurelia Antica which, at this point, runs alongside the ruins of the Acquedotto Traiano-Paolo (Traiano-Paolo Aqueduct), whose material was 'reused' to build the villa. The gardens of the Villa Vecchia were famous for the great number of citrus trees. At the end of the 19th century, they appeared to be paths with sweeping curves that enclosed various types of trees, flowerbeds in designs and many palms which gave an exotic appearance. The west part of the Villa recalls the Roman countryside and is an excellent place to laze, walk or do open-air sports. As a result of its position, Villa Doria Pamphili also has interesting archaeological remains; these include a Roman necropolis where two tombs from the Augustan age were found, decorated with splendid frescoes and which can be admired in the Museo Nazionale Romano. The mediaeval Casale di Giovio, built on a little Roman funerary temple, is on a small hill, once more in the western part. Villa Doria Pamphili was extended and altered in the middle of the 19th century but the villa was inexorably divided in two by the opening of a dual-carriage way, bearing the name of Leo XIII, in 1960. In 1967, the complex was acquired by the state and Rome City Council and was at long last opened to the public. Today, it is the ideal place to laze, have a picnic, do open-air sport or simply walk in a lush, green oasis in the chaotic heart of Rome. Casino del Bel Respiro The Casino del Bel Respiro is one of the most beautiful buildings of Villa Pamphili, also known as Palazzina dell'Algardi in memory of the architect whose intention was to express the magnificence of the noble family. It was commissioned by Giovanni Battista Pamphili, who became Pope with the name of Innocence X. It was the home of valuable art collections, and recreational events, parties and meetings were held there. The palace was inspired by the villas of Palladio while the furnishing and gardens recalled ancient noble residences, in particular Villa Adriana at Tivoli, where Algardi used to go to study and draw. The building has a façade on two levels on the main side and, to overcome the difference in the level of the ground, three levels on the side where the Giardino Segreto (Secret Garden) was created. 
This secluded and picturesque oasis was embellished by hedges shaped to form designs like the fleur-de-lys, the family crest, and many statues which also decorated the access drive to the Casino. Two fishponds were planned along the short sides of the garden but only one was actually created. A fountain in the centre completed the scene. The Giardino Segreto leads to the Giardino del Teatro (Theatre Garden), a semi-circular construction which hosted certain theatrical events.
305
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Villa Doria Pamphili
305
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Villa Doria Pamphili is a succession of surprising views and historic buildings immersed in the lush vegetation of one of the largest green areas in the city. It has a perimeter of 6.5 km and extends over 184 hectares and, in addition to being a park, it is also a splendid monumental villa, so green that it was also known as the 'Bel Respiro' (Beautiful Breath). One of the accesses to Villa Doria Pamphili is Piazza di San Pancrazio (St Pancras's Square). This place was already talked of in the mediaeval period - the pilgrim itineraries (the old 'guides') indicated the Santuario di San Pancrazio (St Pancras's Sanctuary) to those arriving from the north. This is a beautiful church that, finding itself on a pilgrimage route, could offer a welcome to the wayfarers in its monastery; it also had a Catacomb in its crypt full of valuable frescoes. Today, the underground cemetery contains graffiti, traces of old paintings and lots of loculi making its dark corners even more mysterious. When the estate along the Via Aurelia was bought by Panfilo Pamphili in 1630, there was only the Villa Vecchia, the oldest building, inside it. However, between 1644 and 1652, under the papacy of Innocent X Pamphili, the architects Algardi and Grimaldi built the complex of the Villa Nuova, which became the residence of Camillo Pamphili, the Pope's nephew. At the beginning, the villa was divided into three parts - the building and gardens (pars urbana), the pinewood (pars fructuaria) and the farm (pars rustica), but the Pamphili family had the so-called 'Casino di Allegrezze' designed and built. This was to host parties and large receptions while the park and the 'Giardini di delizie' (Gardens of Delight) were arranged around the Palazzo where the games and pastimes of the Roman nobility were held for many years. The scene must have been enchanting because of the incredible number of rare plants and flowers kept with such care and in such quantity that they could be used to extract perfumes, not counting the oranges, lemons, cedars and ilexes in which coloured birds of various species and from distant places nested. The plants were in decorated terracotta vases or put directly into the ground. 
The scene was completed by lots of fountains, almost all designed by Algardi, fed by a Roman aqueduct that Pope Paul V had refurbished at the end of the 14th century and which took the name of Acquedotto Paolo. Deer and fallow deer, pheasants and many other species of animals kept specially to entertain guests who went hunting, the favourite sport of the nobility, ran free among the poplars and pines in the depths of the woods and glades. Today, after entering by Porta S. Pancrazio, the Arco dei Quattro Venti (the Four Winds Arch) is directly ahead. A little further on there is Palazzina Corsini dating to the 18th century and part of the Villa Corsini from the same century. From here, there is a breathtaking view of the Valle dei Daini (Fallow Deer Valley) where these animals roam freely and which was cleared in 2000 after years of negligence. The Fontana del Giglio lies beyond the pinewood, and features plays of water that flow into the Laghetto del Belvedere (the Belvedere Lake), a natural basin which underwent alterations and extensions over the years without changing the water supply. Only a recent restoration has improved the inflow and outflow of the water while the historic paths created for the beauty spots ('belvedere') have been rearranged. The Cappella Doria Pamphili (Doria Pamphili Chapel), a little way away, was the last of the buildings constructed in the villa between 1896 and 1902. The Villa Vecchia or Casino di Famiglia, the original building, is on the side of the Via Aurelia Antica which, at this point, runs alongside the ruins of the Acquedotto Traiano-Paolo (Traiano-Paolo Aqueduct), whose material was 'reused' to build the villa. The gardens of the Villa Vecchia were famous for the great number of citrus trees. At the end of the 19th century, they appeared to be paths with sweeping curves that enclosed various types of trees, flowerbeds in designs and many palms which gave an exotic appearance. The west part of the Villa recalls the Roman countryside and is an excellent place to laze, walk or do open-air sports. As a result of its position, Villa Doria Pamphili also has interesting archaeological remains; these include a Roman necropolis where two tombs from the Augustan age were found, decorated with splendid frescoes and which can be admired in the Museo Nazionale Romano. The mediaeval Casale di Giovio, built on a little Roman funerary temple, is on a small hill, once more in the western part. Villa Doria Pamphili was extended and altered in the middle of the 19th century but the villa was inexorably divided in two by the opening of a dual-carriage way, bearing the name of Leo XIII, in 1960. In 1967, the complex was acquired by the state and Rome City Council and was at long last opened to the public. Today, it is the ideal place to laze, have a picnic, do open-air sport or simply walk in a lush, green oasis in the chaotic heart of Rome. Casino del Bel Respiro The Casino del Bel Respiro is one of the most beautiful buildings of Villa Pamphili, also known as Palazzina dell'Algardi in memory of the architect whose intention was to express the magnificence of the noble family. It was commissioned by Giovanni Battista Pamphili, who became Pope with the name of Innocence X. It was the home of valuable art collections, and recreational events, parties and meetings were held there. The palace was inspired by the villas of Palladio while the furnishing and gardens recalled ancient noble residences, in particular Villa Adriana at Tivoli, where Algardi used to go to study and draw. The building has a façade on two levels on the main side and, to overcome the difference in the level of the ground, three levels on the side where the Giardino Segreto (Secret Garden) was created. 
This secluded and picturesque oasis was embellished by hedges shaped to form designs like the fleur-de-lys, the family crest, and many statues which also decorated the access drive to the Casino. Two fishponds were planned along the short sides of the garden but only one was actually created. A fountain in the centre completed the scene. The Giardino Segreto leads to the Giardino del Teatro (Theatre Garden), a semi-circular construction which hosted certain theatrical events.
A microcosm encapsulating epochs, peoples and living styles. All wound up in a fascinating complex of intertwining medieval streets and dwellings, both aristocratic and common. The sun dappled cobbled streets draped in ivy, punctuated with window boxes; the rattle whizz and purr of precarious mopeds; washing stretched across streets to dry: street vendors, artists, the mouthwatering aroma of freshly baked pizza and "all manner of folk" characterize Trastevere. Literally translated, the word "Trastevere" comes from the Latin "trans Tiberim", meaning "beyond the Tevere". Until the time of the Emperor Augustus, the area was immediately outside the city, linked to a port upriver, and specialized in trade. In Augustus' time it was so densely populated, that the Emperor established here one of the the guards' residences. A barracks stood not far from where the church of Saint Crisogonowas later built. It was home to almost one thousand guards, acting as an emergency service, for fires and local disturbances. Trastevere represented one of the more cosmopolitan districts in Rome. Inhabited by a combination of Romans, Greeks, and Jews who lived nearby. As with every cosmopolitan city, it was a melting pot of cultures, cuisine and customs. To this day, the "Trasteverini", the inhabitants of Trastevere, are "authentic Romans", known for their dialectic use of Italian and down to earth "live and let live" approach to life, who for centuries have lived in a working environment of cultural integration. The establishment of the Jewish colony was probably the reason for the early spread of Christianity in the area, and the establishment of various "tituli" (parishes) such as Santa Maria in Trastevere, Saint Crisogono and Santa Cecilia. The official evolution of Trastevere was slow. Though crucial for business in the city, it was 1200 before it became the thirteenth officially recognized district of Rome. Its banner, a golden lion on a red background, symbolizes the pride of the district, and the blood of the martyrs who died in the early days of the Christian era. The lion may also refer to the Guelf party, which stood for the Pope, and had many supporters in the area. The streets and alleys remained unpaved till 1400, when Pope Sixtus IV had bricks laid. However proving unsuited to wagon wheels, they were later replaced by the "Sampietrini" (cobblestones), which remain to this day, making navigation by bicycle and moped, a hazardous undertaking. Trastevere's water comes from an ancient aqueduct, first built by the Romans during the reign of the Emperor Trajan. Pope Paul V in the Sixteen Hundreds, reconstructed the aqueduct which was re named Aqua Paola in honor of the Pope. It leads to one of the largest and most dramatic fountains in Rome, known as the Fontanone (the large fountain). The Hospital of San Gallicano and the complex of San Michele a Ripa, were also constructed in the same century. The latter, created originally as a charity centre, later became a detention center, before being transformed into its present capacity as headquarters of the Ministry of Culture. Till the Eighteen Hundreds the Tevere had been central to trade and commerce, and flowed at street level, frequently bursting its banks, flooding the city as far inland as Piazza Venezia. The Piedmonteses, who arrived in 1870, were immediately confronted with the nightmare of flooding: the water level rose by seventy meters, causing chaos all the way to the Spanish Steps. Such drama called for serious action: notwithstanding the necessity of destroying several ancient churches, and quartering the splendid Palazzo Della Farnesinagarden, they walled in the river. The subsequent lower water level made the river much less likely to flood, and less accessible. Though perhaps beneficial from a hygiene and convenience point of view, the diminished role of the river meant that Trastevere lost its importance to Rome as a link in the trade chain.
436
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Trastevere
436
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
A microcosm encapsulating epochs, peoples and living styles. All wound up in a fascinating complex of intertwining medieval streets and dwellings, both aristocratic and common. The sun dappled cobbled streets draped in ivy, punctuated with window boxes; the rattle whizz and purr of precarious mopeds; washing stretched across streets to dry: street vendors, artists, the mouthwatering aroma of freshly baked pizza and "all manner of folk" characterize Trastevere. Literally translated, the word "Trastevere" comes from the Latin "trans Tiberim", meaning "beyond the Tevere". Until the time of the Emperor Augustus, the area was immediately outside the city, linked to a port upriver, and specialized in trade. In Augustus' time it was so densely populated, that the Emperor established here one of the the guards' residences. A barracks stood not far from where the church of Saint Crisogonowas later built. It was home to almost one thousand guards, acting as an emergency service, for fires and local disturbances. Trastevere represented one of the more cosmopolitan districts in Rome. Inhabited by a combination of Romans, Greeks, and Jews who lived nearby. As with every cosmopolitan city, it was a melting pot of cultures, cuisine and customs. To this day, the "Trasteverini", the inhabitants of Trastevere, are "authentic Romans", known for their dialectic use of Italian and down to earth "live and let live" approach to life, who for centuries have lived in a working environment of cultural integration. The establishment of the Jewish colony was probably the reason for the early spread of Christianity in the area, and the establishment of various "tituli" (parishes) such as Santa Maria in Trastevere, Saint Crisogono and Santa Cecilia. The official evolution of Trastevere was slow. Though crucial for business in the city, it was 1200 before it became the thirteenth officially recognized district of Rome. Its banner, a golden lion on a red background, symbolizes the pride of the district, and the blood of the martyrs who died in the early days of the Christian era. The lion may also refer to the Guelf party, which stood for the Pope, and had many supporters in the area. The streets and alleys remained unpaved till 1400, when Pope Sixtus IV had bricks laid. However proving unsuited to wagon wheels, they were later replaced by the "Sampietrini" (cobblestones), which remain to this day, making navigation by bicycle and moped, a hazardous undertaking. Trastevere's water comes from an ancient aqueduct, first built by the Romans during the reign of the Emperor Trajan. Pope Paul V in the Sixteen Hundreds, reconstructed the aqueduct which was re named Aqua Paola in honor of the Pope. It leads to one of the largest and most dramatic fountains in Rome, known as the Fontanone (the large fountain). The Hospital of San Gallicano and the complex of San Michele a Ripa, were also constructed in the same century. The latter, created originally as a charity centre, later became a detention center, before being transformed into its present capacity as headquarters of the Ministry of Culture. Till the Eighteen Hundreds the Tevere had been central to trade and commerce, and flowed at street level, frequently bursting its banks, flooding the city as far inland as Piazza Venezia. The Piedmonteses, who arrived in 1870, were immediately confronted with the nightmare of flooding: the water level rose by seventy meters, causing chaos all the way to the Spanish Steps. Such drama called for serious action: notwithstanding the necessity of destroying several ancient churches, and quartering the splendid Palazzo Della Farnesinagarden, they walled in the river. The subsequent lower water level made the river much less likely to flood, and less accessible. Though perhaps beneficial from a hygiene and convenience point of view, the diminished role of the river meant that Trastevere lost its importance to Rome as a link in the trade chain.
Santa Maria in Trastevere The heart of Trastevere is Piazza Santa Maria in Trastevere, enclosed in splendid Sixteenth Century style buildings. The octagonal water cistern in the centre of the Piazza, was transformed into a pleasant fountain by Carlo Fontana. The church of Santa Maria in Trastevere is one of the oldest churches in Rome, the first to host a public mass, and to be dedicated to the Virgin. The church itself is surrounded in myths and tradition. It is said that thirty-eight years before the birth of Christ, a substance purported to be oil, spurted from the ground of an ancient Roman site, originally called Taberna Meritoria, stretching down to the Tevere. However, at the time it remained an unexplained portent. Later, after the birth of Christ, it was interpreted to have been a sign foretelling Christ's coming. Pope Callisto I thus decided to have the church built on this ancient site, and to this day, a step leading to the Presbytery marks the spot where the "oil" was said to have appeared. This mysterious substance purported, perhaps was petrol. In this day and age, a new source of crude-oil would indeed be miraculous to a world in need of natural resources. Watch this space! In the fourth century, Pope Julius I developed the church, giving it the form of a Basilica. At the time, of pope Gregory IV, the invasion from the Saracensseemed imminent and the church was enlarged to accommodate and protect bodies of the early christians salvaged from the Catacombs. Again, in the Twelfth Century, the church was rebuilt by Innocent II using materials from the Roman Baths of Caracalla. From that time on, structural changes continued intermittently until the Seventeen Hundreds. Some of these changes, such as the portico and modifications to the façade, were effected by the architect Carlo Fontana. The few elements remained from the original church include a strip of paving dating back to the Third Century, and the Romanic bell tower, at the top of which is a mosaic of the Madonna and child dating from the Sixteen Hundreds. Santa Maria in Trastevere substituted the role of St Paul's Outside the Walls for at least three "Holy Years". Outbreaks of epidemics in the Roman countryside, and a serious fire in 1825 rendered St Paul's inaccessible or unusable, so the faithful visited Santa Maria in Trastevere for rites and prayer. The Basilica is flanked by two religious buildings framing part of the Piazza: to the left, adjacent to the church stands the Saint Callisto Palace, once a Benedictine monastery. To the right of the Basilica stands "La Casa dei Canonici" (Clerical Residence), the façade of which dates back to the Sixteenth Century and was restored in the Eighteen and Nineteen Hundreds. On the same side, stands Palazzo Cavalieri (or Leopardi) with ashlar-work wall designs and a classic baroque portal. This lovely central square as the whole Trastevere district, are now focal points for meeting, eating out, and people watching by day. By night, theaters, cinemas and a variety of clubs and bars are popular with visitors and Romans alike. Trastevere's streets offer unique handcrafted wares and one off clothing boutiques with a wonderful variety of styles, often open at all hours. For a characteristic urban evening out among the smells, tastes and people of Rome, is the perfect place to go.
150
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Santa Maria in Trastevere
150
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Santa Maria in Trastevere The heart of Trastevere is Piazza Santa Maria in Trastevere, enclosed in splendid Sixteenth Century style buildings. The octagonal water cistern in the centre of the Piazza, was transformed into a pleasant fountain by Carlo Fontana. The church of Santa Maria in Trastevere is one of the oldest churches in Rome, the first to host a public mass, and to be dedicated to the Virgin. The church itself is surrounded in myths and tradition. It is said that thirty-eight years before the birth of Christ, a substance purported to be oil, spurted from the ground of an ancient Roman site, originally called Taberna Meritoria, stretching down to the Tevere. However, at the time it remained an unexplained portent. Later, after the birth of Christ, it was interpreted to have been a sign foretelling Christ's coming. Pope Callisto I thus decided to have the church built on this ancient site, and to this day, a step leading to the Presbytery marks the spot where the "oil" was said to have appeared. This mysterious substance purported, perhaps was petrol. In this day and age, a new source of crude-oil would indeed be miraculous to a world in need of natural resources. Watch this space! In the fourth century, Pope Julius I developed the church, giving it the form of a Basilica. At the time, of pope Gregory IV, the invasion from the Saracensseemed imminent and the church was enlarged to accommodate and protect bodies of the early christians salvaged from the Catacombs. Again, in the Twelfth Century, the church was rebuilt by Innocent II using materials from the Roman Baths of Caracalla. From that time on, structural changes continued intermittently until the Seventeen Hundreds. Some of these changes, such as the portico and modifications to the façade, were effected by the architect Carlo Fontana. The few elements remained from the original church include a strip of paving dating back to the Third Century, and the Romanic bell tower, at the top of which is a mosaic of the Madonna and child dating from the Sixteen Hundreds. Santa Maria in Trastevere substituted the role of St Paul's Outside the Walls for at least three "Holy Years". Outbreaks of epidemics in the Roman countryside, and a serious fire in 1825 rendered St Paul's inaccessible or unusable, so the faithful visited Santa Maria in Trastevere for rites and prayer. The Basilica is flanked by two religious buildings framing part of the Piazza: to the left, adjacent to the church stands the Saint Callisto Palace, once a Benedictine monastery. To the right of the Basilica stands "La Casa dei Canonici" (Clerical Residence), the façade of which dates back to the Sixteenth Century and was restored in the Eighteen and Nineteen Hundreds. On the same side, stands Palazzo Cavalieri (or Leopardi) with ashlar-work wall designs and a classic baroque portal. This lovely central square as the whole Trastevere district, are now focal points for meeting, eating out, and people watching by day. By night, theaters, cinemas and a variety of clubs and bars are popular with visitors and Romans alike. Trastevere's streets offer unique handcrafted wares and one off clothing boutiques with a wonderful variety of styles, often open at all hours. For a characteristic urban evening out among the smells, tastes and people of Rome, is the perfect place to go.
Janiculum (Il Gianicolo) If you hear talk of the “8th Hill” of Rome, don't be surprised: Janiculum is one of the highest hills, even though it isn't one of the Seven Hills of the “Eternal City”. But it is famous for being one of the most charming corners of Rome -- a balcony with breath-taking views over the expanse of churches, piazzas, and monuments below, with the meandering Tiber taking centre stage. Towards the east, the hill descends to another famous and ancient Roman quarter: Trastevere. The name Janiculum comes from the belief that in ancient times it was the place where the god Janus was worshipped. The fourth king of Rome, Ancus Marcius, was the first to occupy, fortify, and join this high ground to the city by way of the Pons Sublicius. The Via Aurelia, connecting Rome to Etruria, passed over this bridge. Because of its elevation and incredible view of the entire city, Janiculum became an area filled with sacred woods and buildings associated with worship; the hill was in fact the most suitable place for priests to read the sky for signs and be as close as possible to the gods. Here stood an eastern temple dedicated to Isis, some of whose remains are kept at the museum of the Palazzo Altemps. In the 17th century, Pope Urban VIII enclosed the hill with a wall that came to be called the Janiculum wall. Later on, stately houses such as Villa Doria Pamphili and Villa Corsini were built in former Janiculum parks; it also remained a place linked with worship, in the meanwhile, of Christianity. It became populated with churches such as San Pietro in Montorio and convents like Sant'Onofrio and the ancient San Pancrazio. In 1849 Janiculum was the scene of an important battle, where Giuseppe Garibaldi fought the French troops summoned by Pope Pius IX. There are various monuments on the hill commemorating this event and recalling both the battle and that period of Italian history. A large monument with Garibaldi on horseback was built at the centre of the piazza; later a second one was dedicated to his wife, Anita. His ashes are kept in the base. Going today along the streets that lead down toward Trastevere, you can see numerous marble busts of partisans who fought defending the Roman Republic. A little below the Garibaldi monument is one of the Janiculum's main attractions: the cannon that fires blank shells each day at exactly mid-day, to be heard all the way to the Coliseum. The midday cannon was Pope Pius IX's idea. In 1847 he decided to provide a reference point for all Rome's church bells, which might otherwise ring at different times based on the different timekeeping practices of their individual clerks. At that time, the cannon was in the Castel Sant'Angelo; after being moved to various locations, it ended up on Janiculum. It wasn't fired during the wars, but the practice was re-instated for good in 1959.
111
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Janiculum Terrace
111
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Janiculum (Il Gianicolo) If you hear talk of the “8th Hill” of Rome, don't be surprised: Janiculum is one of the highest hills, even though it isn't one of the Seven Hills of the “Eternal City”. But it is famous for being one of the most charming corners of Rome -- a balcony with breath-taking views over the expanse of churches, piazzas, and monuments below, with the meandering Tiber taking centre stage. Towards the east, the hill descends to another famous and ancient Roman quarter: Trastevere. The name Janiculum comes from the belief that in ancient times it was the place where the god Janus was worshipped. The fourth king of Rome, Ancus Marcius, was the first to occupy, fortify, and join this high ground to the city by way of the Pons Sublicius. The Via Aurelia, connecting Rome to Etruria, passed over this bridge. Because of its elevation and incredible view of the entire city, Janiculum became an area filled with sacred woods and buildings associated with worship; the hill was in fact the most suitable place for priests to read the sky for signs and be as close as possible to the gods. Here stood an eastern temple dedicated to Isis, some of whose remains are kept at the museum of the Palazzo Altemps. In the 17th century, Pope Urban VIII enclosed the hill with a wall that came to be called the Janiculum wall. Later on, stately houses such as Villa Doria Pamphili and Villa Corsini were built in former Janiculum parks; it also remained a place linked with worship, in the meanwhile, of Christianity. It became populated with churches such as San Pietro in Montorio and convents like Sant'Onofrio and the ancient San Pancrazio. In 1849 Janiculum was the scene of an important battle, where Giuseppe Garibaldi fought the French troops summoned by Pope Pius IX. There are various monuments on the hill commemorating this event and recalling both the battle and that period of Italian history. A large monument with Garibaldi on horseback was built at the centre of the piazza; later a second one was dedicated to his wife, Anita. His ashes are kept in the base. Going today along the streets that lead down toward Trastevere, you can see numerous marble busts of partisans who fought defending the Roman Republic. A little below the Garibaldi monument is one of the Janiculum's main attractions: the cannon that fires blank shells each day at exactly mid-day, to be heard all the way to the Coliseum. The midday cannon was Pope Pius IX's idea. In 1847 he decided to provide a reference point for all Rome's church bells, which might otherwise ring at different times based on the different timekeeping practices of their individual clerks. At that time, the cannon was in the Castel Sant'Angelo; after being moved to various locations, it ended up on Janiculum. It wasn't fired during the wars, but the practice was re-instated for good in 1959.
Fontana dell'Acqua Paola - "Er Fontanone" With its breathtaking view, the Fontana dell'Acqua Paola is one of the most romantic and picturesque places in Rome. Known by Romans as “er Fontanone” (the “Big Fountain”), it is a baroque jewel that graces the Janiculum landscape with its marble splendour. Commissioned by Paul V Borghese in 1600 as a monumental display of the aqueduct, the fountain marks the end of the aqueduct and celebrates its creator, the Pope, in name: Acqua “Paola”. Immediately upon being elected, Paul Vcommitted to numerous public works projects. Among them was the repair of the ancient Trajan Aqueduct so that it could bring water to Trastevere again. Three architects worked on the project. However, the monumental work was created by Flaminio Ponzio and Giovanni Fontana who, after working three years on the colossal undertaking, succeeded in bring water to Janiculum. As was the practice at the time, all the construction materials were scavenged from ancient monuments. Stone and marble were taken from the Forum of Nerva, and the granite columns from the ancient St. Peter's Basilica built byEmperor Constantine. The fountain resembles the Triumphal Arches of ancient Rome. It has five arches separated by massive marble columns and three central niches with waterfalls. Originally there were five water basins, one for each arch; however, in 1690 Carlo Fontana created the large semicircular basin that mirrored the shape of the wide viewing terrace. Behind the arches are three openings that provide glimpses into the Botanical Garden beyond. Above, at the top, there are two winged angels holding the Papal crest, while dragons and eagles stand guard at the ends. There is an inscription celebrating the Pope responsible for restoring the aqueduct and creating the fountain, but it contains a mistake. It states that the oldAlsietina Aqueduct was restored to create the Acqua Paola, while in actuality it was Trajan's Aqueduct that was repaired. In 1849, during the tough battle on Janiculum, the “Fontanone” sustained damage from French cannon fire. The most recent restoration, which took place in 2002-2004, restored the fountain to its original splendour, showing off the contrast between the white stone and the coloured marble lit by the reflections of the moving water.
71
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Fontana dell'Acqua Paola
71
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Fontana dell'Acqua Paola - "Er Fontanone" With its breathtaking view, the Fontana dell'Acqua Paola is one of the most romantic and picturesque places in Rome. Known by Romans as “er Fontanone” (the “Big Fountain”), it is a baroque jewel that graces the Janiculum landscape with its marble splendour. Commissioned by Paul V Borghese in 1600 as a monumental display of the aqueduct, the fountain marks the end of the aqueduct and celebrates its creator, the Pope, in name: Acqua “Paola”. Immediately upon being elected, Paul Vcommitted to numerous public works projects. Among them was the repair of the ancient Trajan Aqueduct so that it could bring water to Trastevere again. Three architects worked on the project. However, the monumental work was created by Flaminio Ponzio and Giovanni Fontana who, after working three years on the colossal undertaking, succeeded in bring water to Janiculum. As was the practice at the time, all the construction materials were scavenged from ancient monuments. Stone and marble were taken from the Forum of Nerva, and the granite columns from the ancient St. Peter's Basilica built byEmperor Constantine. The fountain resembles the Triumphal Arches of ancient Rome. It has five arches separated by massive marble columns and three central niches with waterfalls. Originally there were five water basins, one for each arch; however, in 1690 Carlo Fontana created the large semicircular basin that mirrored the shape of the wide viewing terrace. Behind the arches are three openings that provide glimpses into the Botanical Garden beyond. Above, at the top, there are two winged angels holding the Papal crest, while dragons and eagles stand guard at the ends. There is an inscription celebrating the Pope responsible for restoring the aqueduct and creating the fountain, but it contains a mistake. It states that the oldAlsietina Aqueduct was restored to create the Acqua Paola, while in actuality it was Trajan's Aqueduct that was repaired. In 1849, during the tough battle on Janiculum, the “Fontanone” sustained damage from French cannon fire. The most recent restoration, which took place in 2002-2004, restored the fountain to its original splendour, showing off the contrast between the white stone and the coloured marble lit by the reflections of the moving water.
Pasquino: Talking statue of Rome Among Rome's more colourful stories are the talking statues. The most famous is Pasquino, whose notoriety grew between the 16th and the 19th centuries. The statue is what remains of a work from the 3rd century B.C. that once decorated the Stadium of Domitian (which stood on the exact spot and with the exact form as the Piazza Navona). The statue's face was damaged, and it had neither arms nor legs. It is difficult to tell who the subject is: most likely, it is a hero from ancient Greece: Menelaus, Ajax, or Hercules. It was discovered in 1501 during road work and the renovation of Palazzo Braschi in the very same piazza where it still stands today (formerly the Piazza di Parione and now the Piazza Pasquino). Cardinale Carafa was in charge of the renovations; he insisted the statue be saved even though many people felt it had little value. This is why it is found here today, with the addition of Carafa's family crest and a commemorative plaque. But why was the statue called Pasquino? According to different stories, the name may have come from a craftsman in the district who was particularly good at composing satirical verses; others suggest that it was perhaps named after a headmaster from a nearby school whose students thought bore a striking resemblance to the statue, and so they attached those first ridiculing verses; and it is not to be excluded that the name was inspired by a character from a Boccaccio short story. Yet it was a series of coincidences that caused this insignificant statue to become so popular and yet so hated. Rome already had an active practice of attributing the general population's discontent to statues. During the night, notes with satirical verses attacking the most well-known public figures would be hung around the necks of statues in the busiest parts of town so that in the morning they could be seen and read by everyone before being removed by guards. These stinging insults came to be called “Pasquinate,” taking the name of the statue that best demonstrated the people's discontent about corruption and abuses of power. But that's not all: these same powerful people often used the Pasquino to spread slander against their political opponents, with the authors naturally being well compensated. In this way, Papal elections were fought with Pasquinate that aimed to curry favor with the populace. This method of spreading insults and propaganda spread quickly throughout the rest of Italy: in Venice, by way of the Hunchback of the Rialto, to Florence, with its famous “piglet” in the Loggia del Mercato Nuovo. Bombarded with satire, the most prominent figures quickly began to detest the statue and its rhymes. Being the most heavily targeted, the Popes began to think of ways to get rid of the statue. The controversial Pope Hadrian VI tried to throw the statue in the Tiber but was stopped by his cardinals, who warned him about the possibility of the Roman populace retaliating with even stronger blasts of satire. Then, Pope Sixtus V and Pope Clemente VIII both tried to get rid of the statue, without success. When Benedetto XIII decided to install a night watchman to guard the statue, the pasquinate multiplied so exponentially that the Pope issued an edict threatening death, incarceration, and branding for anyone caught posting rhymes. Although there were many victims, it was not enough to silence the rhymes, which were particularly critical of the Pope's "prostitution luxury". Over time, then, Pasquino became a powerful critic of Papal court excesses. The insults tapered off only when the temporal power of the Papacy ended with the Breach of Porta Pia. Pasquino spoke less often, but when Hitler visited Rome during the Fascist period, there was harsh criticism about the enormous costs of the pompous events thrown for the Nazi dictator. Even today, the statue doesn't fail to express itself in a stinging manner, despite repeated attempts to silence it.
Pasquino
77 Piazza di Pasquino
Pasquino: Talking statue of Rome Among Rome's more colourful stories are the talking statues. The most famous is Pasquino, whose notoriety grew between the 16th and the 19th centuries. The statue is what remains of a work from the 3rd century B.C. that once decorated the Stadium of Domitian (which stood on the exact spot and with the exact form as the Piazza Navona). The statue's face was damaged, and it had neither arms nor legs. It is difficult to tell who the subject is: most likely, it is a hero from ancient Greece: Menelaus, Ajax, or Hercules. It was discovered in 1501 during road work and the renovation of Palazzo Braschi in the very same piazza where it still stands today (formerly the Piazza di Parione and now the Piazza Pasquino). Cardinale Carafa was in charge of the renovations; he insisted the statue be saved even though many people felt it had little value. This is why it is found here today, with the addition of Carafa's family crest and a commemorative plaque. But why was the statue called Pasquino? According to different stories, the name may have come from a craftsman in the district who was particularly good at composing satirical verses; others suggest that it was perhaps named after a headmaster from a nearby school whose students thought bore a striking resemblance to the statue, and so they attached those first ridiculing verses; and it is not to be excluded that the name was inspired by a character from a Boccaccio short story. Yet it was a series of coincidences that caused this insignificant statue to become so popular and yet so hated. Rome already had an active practice of attributing the general population's discontent to statues. During the night, notes with satirical verses attacking the most well-known public figures would be hung around the necks of statues in the busiest parts of town so that in the morning they could be seen and read by everyone before being removed by guards. These stinging insults came to be called “Pasquinate,” taking the name of the statue that best demonstrated the people's discontent about corruption and abuses of power. But that's not all: these same powerful people often used the Pasquino to spread slander against their political opponents, with the authors naturally being well compensated. In this way, Papal elections were fought with Pasquinate that aimed to curry favor with the populace. This method of spreading insults and propaganda spread quickly throughout the rest of Italy: in Venice, by way of the Hunchback of the Rialto, to Florence, with its famous “piglet” in the Loggia del Mercato Nuovo. Bombarded with satire, the most prominent figures quickly began to detest the statue and its rhymes. Being the most heavily targeted, the Popes began to think of ways to get rid of the statue. The controversial Pope Hadrian VI tried to throw the statue in the Tiber but was stopped by his cardinals, who warned him about the possibility of the Roman populace retaliating with even stronger blasts of satire. Then, Pope Sixtus V and Pope Clemente VIII both tried to get rid of the statue, without success. When Benedetto XIII decided to install a night watchman to guard the statue, the pasquinate multiplied so exponentially that the Pope issued an edict threatening death, incarceration, and branding for anyone caught posting rhymes. Although there were many victims, it was not enough to silence the rhymes, which were particularly critical of the Pope's "prostitution luxury". Over time, then, Pasquino became a powerful critic of Papal court excesses. The insults tapered off only when the temporal power of the Papacy ended with the Breach of Porta Pia. Pasquino spoke less often, but when Hitler visited Rome during the Fascist period, there was harsh criticism about the enormous costs of the pompous events thrown for the Nazi dictator. Even today, the statue doesn't fail to express itself in a stinging manner, despite repeated attempts to silence it.
The Mouth of Truth (La Bocca della Verità) In the portico of the Paleochristian church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, at the foot of the Aventine hills, a Roman statue is conserved that has attracted the attention and curiosity of tourists from all over the world. It is the "Bocca della Verità", which in English means the Mouth of Truth, an ancient stone mask from the Classical period that represents a river god with an open mouth, wide eyes and a flowing mane of hair. The reason for its unshakeable fame is a rather macabre legend associated with the mask since ancient times. If a liar puts their hand inside its mouth, they will lose it. This legend probably originates from Roman times. It is said that the rich wife of a Roman noble was accused of adultery. The woman denied the accusations, but her husband wanted to put her to the test by making her hand inside the stone mouth. Knowing perfectly well that she was lying, the woman used a very clever strategy. In front of a group of curious bystanders who had gathered around the Mouth of Truth, the man who was actually her lover embraced her and kissed her. She pretended that she didn't know him and accused him of being a madman and the crowd chased him away. When she put her hand into the mouth, the woman declared that she had never kissed any other man apart from her husband and the poor madman who had just kissed her. In this way she was certain that she hadn't lied and her hand was saved. The betrayed husband saved her honour, but the Mouth of Truth lost its credibility and it is said that since that day it no longer carried out its function as a right and unappeasable judge. The mask is so famous that even Hollywood honoured it in a film about the city called Roman Holiday. In one of the most memorable scenes, Gregory Peck, in front of a terrified Audrey Hepburn, daringly challenges the mask by putting his hand inside its mouth. Even today, this ancient mask is the cause of queues of tourists who line up outside the beautiful Paleochristian church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin. The thrill of the risk is evidently too strong and you honestly can't resist putting your hand inside this harmless, but unsettling stone face and hope for the best! Santa Maria in Cosmedin This church was founded in the 6th century on the ruins of the statio annonae, the food-distribution center of classical Rome. Enlarged by Pope Hadrian I in the 8th century, it was given to the Greek community who lived near the Tiber, in a district called the Ripa Grecae. From that time the church was known as Santa Maria in Cosmedin, after the name of a quarter in Constantinople, Beneath the portico is the famous mouth of truth (Bocca della verità). Throughout its history this church was repeatedly restored and redecorated, especially in the 12th and 13th centuries. Noteworthy features include the portico, the elegant Romanesque campanile, the schola cantorum (choir), the rich Cosmatesque pavement and decorations, and the Gothic baldacchino over the high altar. In the sacristy there is a fragment of 8th-century mosaic from the original St Peter's Basilica. The block of tufa from which the tiny crypt was hollowed out is thought to be the remains of an altar from the Forum Boarium erected in honor of Hercules (in view of his victory over the giant Cacus, who stole his cattle). At the end of the last century, the architect Giovanni Battista Giovenale gave the church its excessively medieval appearance.
56
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Mouth of Truth
56
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
The Mouth of Truth (La Bocca della Verità) In the portico of the Paleochristian church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, at the foot of the Aventine hills, a Roman statue is conserved that has attracted the attention and curiosity of tourists from all over the world. It is the "Bocca della Verità", which in English means the Mouth of Truth, an ancient stone mask from the Classical period that represents a river god with an open mouth, wide eyes and a flowing mane of hair. The reason for its unshakeable fame is a rather macabre legend associated with the mask since ancient times. If a liar puts their hand inside its mouth, they will lose it. This legend probably originates from Roman times. It is said that the rich wife of a Roman noble was accused of adultery. The woman denied the accusations, but her husband wanted to put her to the test by making her hand inside the stone mouth. Knowing perfectly well that she was lying, the woman used a very clever strategy. In front of a group of curious bystanders who had gathered around the Mouth of Truth, the man who was actually her lover embraced her and kissed her. She pretended that she didn't know him and accused him of being a madman and the crowd chased him away. When she put her hand into the mouth, the woman declared that she had never kissed any other man apart from her husband and the poor madman who had just kissed her. In this way she was certain that she hadn't lied and her hand was saved. The betrayed husband saved her honour, but the Mouth of Truth lost its credibility and it is said that since that day it no longer carried out its function as a right and unappeasable judge. The mask is so famous that even Hollywood honoured it in a film about the city called Roman Holiday. In one of the most memorable scenes, Gregory Peck, in front of a terrified Audrey Hepburn, daringly challenges the mask by putting his hand inside its mouth. Even today, this ancient mask is the cause of queues of tourists who line up outside the beautiful Paleochristian church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin. The thrill of the risk is evidently too strong and you honestly can't resist putting your hand inside this harmless, but unsettling stone face and hope for the best! Santa Maria in Cosmedin This church was founded in the 6th century on the ruins of the statio annonae, the food-distribution center of classical Rome. Enlarged by Pope Hadrian I in the 8th century, it was given to the Greek community who lived near the Tiber, in a district called the Ripa Grecae. From that time the church was known as Santa Maria in Cosmedin, after the name of a quarter in Constantinople, Beneath the portico is the famous mouth of truth (Bocca della verità). Throughout its history this church was repeatedly restored and redecorated, especially in the 12th and 13th centuries. Noteworthy features include the portico, the elegant Romanesque campanile, the schola cantorum (choir), the rich Cosmatesque pavement and decorations, and the Gothic baldacchino over the high altar. In the sacristy there is a fragment of 8th-century mosaic from the original St Peter's Basilica. The block of tufa from which the tiny crypt was hollowed out is thought to be the remains of an altar from the Forum Boarium erected in honor of Hercules (in view of his victory over the giant Cacus, who stole his cattle). At the end of the last century, the architect Giovanni Battista Giovenale gave the church its excessively medieval appearance.
Knights of Malta (Piazza dei Cavalieri di Malta) Not far from the complex of Sant'Anselmo, high on the Aventine Hill, via di Santa Sabina opens onto the quiet Piazza dei Cavalieri di Malta. Bordered by a high wall, decorated with neoclassical obelisks and military trophies, it leads to a famous and fascinating broad wooden door. Known affectionately by Romans as the "Hole of Rome" its abiding attraction draws queues of visitors to this peaceable "out of the way" spot. No key is required: it is sufficient to put an open eye to the keyhole, and focus. With kaleidoscope charm, a vision of St Peter's dome (affectionately known to Romans as the "Cuppolone") perfectly in perspective, framed by the tops of trees in the foreground, opens up. Often wrapped in a thin mysterious mist, seems to stand at the end of the garden path, just beyond the door. Originally, the area was the site of a fortified Palace belonging to Alberico II. In 939 it became a Benedictine monastery run by the abbot Oddone of Cluny. In the Twelfth Century, it passed into the hands of the Knights Templar the famous warrior monks, who in 1312, were violently suppressed by Pope Clement V. The monastery then became the seat of a priory belonging to the Gerosolimitani (known as The Knights Hospitaller). In the second half of the 1400's, Pope Paul II granted the monastery to the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, The numerous owners the building has had during its varied history, correspond to the changes in its structure. At the end of the Sixteen Hundreds, CardinalBenedict Pamphilj even transformed it into a coffee house which, for a spell, became a popular haunt of artists. The present structure is the work of the famous architect and engraver Giovanni Battista Piranesi who restored the building in the second half of the 1700's. The Aventine Hill had always been compared to a ship, and since the time of the Knights Templars, it was said to be ready to raise anchor, catch the tide of the Tevere, and set sail for the Holy Land. Building on this popular idea, Piranesi's construction of the complex combined this sea-going theme with the memory and myths of the Templars. The obelisks in the square represent masts, whilst the shrubbery and labyrinth of gardens beyond the door, denotes the ship's ropes. All Piranesi's decorations and architecture is symbolic and rich in mysterious esoteric meanings relating mainly to Masonry, comprehensible only to those who possessed the right key reading. The garden's decorative fountain is surrounded by impressive archeological remains and a well, engraved with the date 1244. Beyond the magical door and its bewitching view, the complex holds the church of Santa Maria del Priorato, also known as Santa Maria Aventina, and a Villa, whose rooms are filled with portraits and valuable paintings.
20
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Knights of Malta Keyhole
3 Piazza dei Cavalieri di Malta
20
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Knights of Malta (Piazza dei Cavalieri di Malta) Not far from the complex of Sant'Anselmo, high on the Aventine Hill, via di Santa Sabina opens onto the quiet Piazza dei Cavalieri di Malta. Bordered by a high wall, decorated with neoclassical obelisks and military trophies, it leads to a famous and fascinating broad wooden door. Known affectionately by Romans as the "Hole of Rome" its abiding attraction draws queues of visitors to this peaceable "out of the way" spot. No key is required: it is sufficient to put an open eye to the keyhole, and focus. With kaleidoscope charm, a vision of St Peter's dome (affectionately known to Romans as the "Cuppolone") perfectly in perspective, framed by the tops of trees in the foreground, opens up. Often wrapped in a thin mysterious mist, seems to stand at the end of the garden path, just beyond the door. Originally, the area was the site of a fortified Palace belonging to Alberico II. In 939 it became a Benedictine monastery run by the abbot Oddone of Cluny. In the Twelfth Century, it passed into the hands of the Knights Templar the famous warrior monks, who in 1312, were violently suppressed by Pope Clement V. The monastery then became the seat of a priory belonging to the Gerosolimitani (known as The Knights Hospitaller). In the second half of the 1400's, Pope Paul II granted the monastery to the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, The numerous owners the building has had during its varied history, correspond to the changes in its structure. At the end of the Sixteen Hundreds, CardinalBenedict Pamphilj even transformed it into a coffee house which, for a spell, became a popular haunt of artists. The present structure is the work of the famous architect and engraver Giovanni Battista Piranesi who restored the building in the second half of the 1700's. The Aventine Hill had always been compared to a ship, and since the time of the Knights Templars, it was said to be ready to raise anchor, catch the tide of the Tevere, and set sail for the Holy Land. Building on this popular idea, Piranesi's construction of the complex combined this sea-going theme with the memory and myths of the Templars. The obelisks in the square represent masts, whilst the shrubbery and labyrinth of gardens beyond the door, denotes the ship's ropes. All Piranesi's decorations and architecture is symbolic and rich in mysterious esoteric meanings relating mainly to Masonry, comprehensible only to those who possessed the right key reading. The garden's decorative fountain is surrounded by impressive archeological remains and a well, engraved with the date 1244. Beyond the magical door and its bewitching view, the complex holds the church of Santa Maria del Priorato, also known as Santa Maria Aventina, and a Villa, whose rooms are filled with portraits and valuable paintings.
Theatre of Marcellus (Teatro di Marcello) With its rows of arches and its more recent, unusually high windows, theTheatre of Marcellus is one of the oldest examples of an entertainment venue that was very popular among ancient Romans. Located in the Campus Martius area, between the Tiber and the Campidoglio, it is a striking example of the kinds of modification and changes of use undergone by ancient Roman monuments over the centuries. At that time of its construction, the Theatre of Pompey already existed. However, to compete with a rival, Julius Caesar decided to build a new theatre nearby. He annexed a large area and didn't hesitate to demolish existing buildings, including two temples. Theatrical productions were offered to the general public during election campaigns, and building a theatre proved to be an excellent propaganda tool. When Caesar died, his successor Augustus continued the project, expanding its scope to include the area around the Circus Flaminus adjacent to the theatre. Responding to its site, the semicircular curve of the theatre was built using the same curve used for the Circus. The project also made allowances for the swampy soil conditions near the river, with a concrete platform being built to reinforce the foundations. Augustus inaugurated the building with a solemn celebration in 13 B.C., dedicating it to his nephew and son-in-law Marcellus, his designated successor who had died prematurely. The theatre was impressive. According to sources of the time, it could hold 15,000-20,000 spectators, second in capacity only to the nearby Theatre of Pompey. It originally had 41 arches for each of the three tiers: Doric for the first two and Ionic for the last. The uppermost portion was decorated with enormous marble theatre masks. The building was fitted with ramps and tunnels that enabled spectators to leave the theatre rapidly. Although at the time it was taller than a 10-storey palazzo, today it is only about 20 meters high. According to sources, the setting was sumptuous. The two small temples thatCaesar had demolished were rebuilt at the rear. While Romans didn't look down upon entertainment facilities, they often built temples near the theatres, using religion to justify their entertainment habits. The theatre was restored repeatedly and was still in use in 421. After falling out of use, it became buried halfway up the first tier. As happened in the Middle Ages, the building became a quarry for materials. Then, because of its strategic position near the river, it was converted into a fortified castle. Various families contested ownership of the property over the centuries. In 1200, it went to the Savellifamily, who built the Baldassarre Peruzzi Palazzo still visible today above the arcades. The most recent owners of the building were the Orsini. In the 1930s, the building was annexed. The shops and homes that had sprung up inside the arcades and the surrounding area were removed. Some major excavation work, common practice during that period, was undertaken to free the arcades that had been filled in with masonry.
20
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Theatre of Marcellus
29 Via del Portico D'Ottavia
20
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Theatre of Marcellus (Teatro di Marcello) With its rows of arches and its more recent, unusually high windows, theTheatre of Marcellus is one of the oldest examples of an entertainment venue that was very popular among ancient Romans. Located in the Campus Martius area, between the Tiber and the Campidoglio, it is a striking example of the kinds of modification and changes of use undergone by ancient Roman monuments over the centuries. At that time of its construction, the Theatre of Pompey already existed. However, to compete with a rival, Julius Caesar decided to build a new theatre nearby. He annexed a large area and didn't hesitate to demolish existing buildings, including two temples. Theatrical productions were offered to the general public during election campaigns, and building a theatre proved to be an excellent propaganda tool. When Caesar died, his successor Augustus continued the project, expanding its scope to include the area around the Circus Flaminus adjacent to the theatre. Responding to its site, the semicircular curve of the theatre was built using the same curve used for the Circus. The project also made allowances for the swampy soil conditions near the river, with a concrete platform being built to reinforce the foundations. Augustus inaugurated the building with a solemn celebration in 13 B.C., dedicating it to his nephew and son-in-law Marcellus, his designated successor who had died prematurely. The theatre was impressive. According to sources of the time, it could hold 15,000-20,000 spectators, second in capacity only to the nearby Theatre of Pompey. It originally had 41 arches for each of the three tiers: Doric for the first two and Ionic for the last. The uppermost portion was decorated with enormous marble theatre masks. The building was fitted with ramps and tunnels that enabled spectators to leave the theatre rapidly. Although at the time it was taller than a 10-storey palazzo, today it is only about 20 meters high. According to sources, the setting was sumptuous. The two small temples thatCaesar had demolished were rebuilt at the rear. While Romans didn't look down upon entertainment facilities, they often built temples near the theatres, using religion to justify their entertainment habits. The theatre was restored repeatedly and was still in use in 421. After falling out of use, it became buried halfway up the first tier. As happened in the Middle Ages, the building became a quarry for materials. Then, because of its strategic position near the river, it was converted into a fortified castle. Various families contested ownership of the property over the centuries. In 1200, it went to the Savellifamily, who built the Baldassarre Peruzzi Palazzo still visible today above the arcades. The most recent owners of the building were the Orsini. In the 1930s, the building was annexed. The shops and homes that had sprung up inside the arcades and the surrounding area were removed. Some major excavation work, common practice during that period, was undertaken to free the arcades that had been filled in with masonry.
Porticus Octaviae (Portico di Ottavia) The Portico of Ottavia is one of the most charming passageways in Rome. It was erected in 146 B.C. at the southernmost point of Campus Martius by Quintus Caecilius Metellus, who also built the Temple of Juno Regina in this area. The temple of Jupiter was later built here (the first temple in Rome to be built completely out of marble). It was part of the triumphal procession route taken by the emperor in arms and the army to celebrate victories and the trophies of battle. It is no coincidence that various important temples lined this route, all built by victorious emperors in celebration of themselves. Between 33 and 27 B.C., Emperor Augustus named the area Circus Flaminius. He restored the entire complex using victory spoils from Dalmatia, dedicating the portico to his sister Ottavia. The portico was an impressive, monumental passageway. 119 meters wide and 132 meters long, it was larger than a football field! It was probably clad entirely in marble, and its interior undoubtedly housed many works of art. Only a few decorations remain visible on the walls of surrounding houses, including various parts of the monument, capitals, and an architrave. According to an inscription, Septimius Severus and Caracalla were responsible for another important restoration at the complex in 204 A.D. And in the 5thcentury, the portico was reconfigured because of an earthquake. This time, the entrance columns were replaced with a large arch, and a church dedicated to St. Paul was built, which later became Sant'Angelo in Pescheria. The name comes from the fact that from the Middle Ages through the late 1800s, the area just below the arch was a fish market. Curiously, the Medieval Latin inscription on the side of the arch advises that fish with heads and fins longer than the marble slab must be given to the Custodians. In the Middle Ages, the Via del Portico d'Ottavia became part of the pilgrim route. Because of its proximity to Tiber bridges and possible enemy access points, many buildings in this area were fortified. One of these was the Theatre of Marcellus, across from the Portico. In the 13th century, an important event changed the destiny of this area: the Roman Jewish Community began to move here from Trastevere. In 1555, following the example set by Venice, Pope Paul IV issued a Papal bull that established this area as the Jewish Ghetto, making it mandatory for Roman Jews to live here. The area was enclosed by walls and became so densely populated that the palazzos were tightly packed side by side. Built up to 6 or 7 stories high, they began to spill over into the streets. This overcrowding led to a grim decline. In the late 1800s, the French tried to improve the area with massive demolitions, but it was the Fascist period that spelled the death blow for the Portico Ottavia, through the indiscriminate widening of many of the old streets.
36
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Portico of Octavia
29 Via del Portico d'Ottavia
36
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Porticus Octaviae (Portico di Ottavia) The Portico of Ottavia is one of the most charming passageways in Rome. It was erected in 146 B.C. at the southernmost point of Campus Martius by Quintus Caecilius Metellus, who also built the Temple of Juno Regina in this area. The temple of Jupiter was later built here (the first temple in Rome to be built completely out of marble). It was part of the triumphal procession route taken by the emperor in arms and the army to celebrate victories and the trophies of battle. It is no coincidence that various important temples lined this route, all built by victorious emperors in celebration of themselves. Between 33 and 27 B.C., Emperor Augustus named the area Circus Flaminius. He restored the entire complex using victory spoils from Dalmatia, dedicating the portico to his sister Ottavia. The portico was an impressive, monumental passageway. 119 meters wide and 132 meters long, it was larger than a football field! It was probably clad entirely in marble, and its interior undoubtedly housed many works of art. Only a few decorations remain visible on the walls of surrounding houses, including various parts of the monument, capitals, and an architrave. According to an inscription, Septimius Severus and Caracalla were responsible for another important restoration at the complex in 204 A.D. And in the 5thcentury, the portico was reconfigured because of an earthquake. This time, the entrance columns were replaced with a large arch, and a church dedicated to St. Paul was built, which later became Sant'Angelo in Pescheria. The name comes from the fact that from the Middle Ages through the late 1800s, the area just below the arch was a fish market. Curiously, the Medieval Latin inscription on the side of the arch advises that fish with heads and fins longer than the marble slab must be given to the Custodians. In the Middle Ages, the Via del Portico d'Ottavia became part of the pilgrim route. Because of its proximity to Tiber bridges and possible enemy access points, many buildings in this area were fortified. One of these was the Theatre of Marcellus, across from the Portico. In the 13th century, an important event changed the destiny of this area: the Roman Jewish Community began to move here from Trastevere. In 1555, following the example set by Venice, Pope Paul IV issued a Papal bull that established this area as the Jewish Ghetto, making it mandatory for Roman Jews to live here. The area was enclosed by walls and became so densely populated that the palazzos were tightly packed side by side. Built up to 6 or 7 stories high, they began to spill over into the streets. This overcrowding led to a grim decline. In the late 1800s, the French tried to improve the area with massive demolitions, but it was the Fascist period that spelled the death blow for the Portico Ottavia, through the indiscriminate widening of many of the old streets.
Tortoise Fountain (Fontana delle Tartarughe) The Turtle Fountain is a little gem and a wonderful surprise in one of the most picturesque and historic corners of Rome. In the Sant'Angelo district, near the Jewish Ghetto, it adorns the small Piazza Mattei, named after the powerful family who owned all the palazzos in the piazza. Like the Trevi Fountain, it is one of Rome's many famous fountains and is likewise fed by the Virgin Aqueduct that has been quenching Romans' thirst since the age of Emperor Augustus. At its inception in the late 1500s, the fountain was originally intended for the neighbouring Piazza Giudea, where there was a market. However, Muzio Matteiinsisted that it be built right in front of his palazzo. In exchange, the family agreed to pave the piazza and to keep the fountain clean. It was designed by Giacomo della Porta, who also created the two fountains at either end of the Piazza Navona. The fountain underwent many changes during the construction process. The ornamentations of four ephebes (youths) and eight dolphins were originally planned in marble, but in the end they were all bronze. Upon completion of the work, four of the dolphins could not be used because the low water pressure didn't provide a strong enough jet. As a result, they were "recycled" in another fountain that is now in the Piazza della Chiesa Nuova. Admired today is a square basin with four marble shells on a pedestal, which supports another basin decorated with cherub heads. The four ephebes rest their feet on the dolphins, holding their tails and urging the little turtles to drink. The turtles, after which the fountain is named, were actually added at the last minute, during a1658 restoration commissioned by Pope Alexander VII. It is commemorated here on a marble scroll. They may have been made by Bernini. Those that we see here today are unfortunately copies. In 1979 one was stolen in the middle of the night, and the three surviving turtles are kept at the Capitoline Museums. There is no shortage of stories circulating around such a unique fountain. It is said that Duca Mattei, a young aristocrat with a passion for gambling, lost all his belongings and found himself penniless. When he learned that the duke had fallen on hard times, the father of his bride-to-be decided to break off the engagement. To convince his prospective father-in-law to reconsider, Mattei decided to amaze him and his bride-to-be by having the fountain built in the piazza in front of the Mattei family palazzo, all in ONE NIGHT. The next day, he called his bride-to-be and her father and invited them to accompany him to a window that looked out over the piazza. They were so impressed that the father-in-law was now convinced that if the Duke could create such a wondrous thing over the course of a single night – albeit on the street – he could also make his daughter happy. After this event, the duke had the window bricked up – work that is still visible today – so that no one else could enjoy the scene. Unfortunately this is only a romantic and colourful legend. In reality, the fountain was built in the late 1500s, but the palazzo wasn't built until 30 years later!
13
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Turtle Fountain
13
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Tortoise Fountain (Fontana delle Tartarughe) The Turtle Fountain is a little gem and a wonderful surprise in one of the most picturesque and historic corners of Rome. In the Sant'Angelo district, near the Jewish Ghetto, it adorns the small Piazza Mattei, named after the powerful family who owned all the palazzos in the piazza. Like the Trevi Fountain, it is one of Rome's many famous fountains and is likewise fed by the Virgin Aqueduct that has been quenching Romans' thirst since the age of Emperor Augustus. At its inception in the late 1500s, the fountain was originally intended for the neighbouring Piazza Giudea, where there was a market. However, Muzio Matteiinsisted that it be built right in front of his palazzo. In exchange, the family agreed to pave the piazza and to keep the fountain clean. It was designed by Giacomo della Porta, who also created the two fountains at either end of the Piazza Navona. The fountain underwent many changes during the construction process. The ornamentations of four ephebes (youths) and eight dolphins were originally planned in marble, but in the end they were all bronze. Upon completion of the work, four of the dolphins could not be used because the low water pressure didn't provide a strong enough jet. As a result, they were "recycled" in another fountain that is now in the Piazza della Chiesa Nuova. Admired today is a square basin with four marble shells on a pedestal, which supports another basin decorated with cherub heads. The four ephebes rest their feet on the dolphins, holding their tails and urging the little turtles to drink. The turtles, after which the fountain is named, were actually added at the last minute, during a1658 restoration commissioned by Pope Alexander VII. It is commemorated here on a marble scroll. They may have been made by Bernini. Those that we see here today are unfortunately copies. In 1979 one was stolen in the middle of the night, and the three surviving turtles are kept at the Capitoline Museums. There is no shortage of stories circulating around such a unique fountain. It is said that Duca Mattei, a young aristocrat with a passion for gambling, lost all his belongings and found himself penniless. When he learned that the duke had fallen on hard times, the father of his bride-to-be decided to break off the engagement. To convince his prospective father-in-law to reconsider, Mattei decided to amaze him and his bride-to-be by having the fountain built in the piazza in front of the Mattei family palazzo, all in ONE NIGHT. The next day, he called his bride-to-be and her father and invited them to accompany him to a window that looked out over the piazza. They were so impressed that the father-in-law was now convinced that if the Duke could create such a wondrous thing over the course of a single night – albeit on the street – he could also make his daughter happy. After this event, the duke had the window bricked up – work that is still visible today – so that no one else could enjoy the scene. Unfortunately this is only a romantic and colourful legend. In reality, the fountain was built in the late 1500s, but the palazzo wasn't built until 30 years later!
Farnese Palace Set in the middle of a small piazza, Palazzo Farnese is an impressive testament to the great artists of the Renaissance: Antonio da Sangallo, Michelangelo, Vignola, and Giacomo Della Porta. Considered one of the wonders of Rome, its sheer size has earned it the nickname “the die”. It all began when Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (the future Pope Paul III) purchased and then demolished the original buildings on the site to create the piazza and his own magnificent residence. Design of the project was awarded to Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. Work began in 1514, but when the original architect died in 1546, Michelangelo was called in. He designed the first two floors, built the third, and adorned the façade with a central balcony. He also had planned to build a bridge that would span the Tiber and connect the rear of the palazzo to the Villa Chigi – also called the “Farnesina”(the little Farnese) – on the opposite bank. But because of the death of Pope Paul III, the project was never completed, although a vestige remains in the form of a short portion of bridge that passes underneath the Via Giulia behind the palazzo. Vignola and Giacomo della Porta were also involved in the project. Some of the construction materials came from ancient Ostia quarries; the ceiling beams – which had to be very long and sturdy – were brought in from the Carnia woods. Ownership of the Palazzo Farnese changed repeatedly over the years. In the 18th century, the palazzo became the property of the Bourbon Kings of Naples and was re-named “Palazzo Regio Farnese”. For a period in 1860, Francesco II of Naples lived there after losing his kingdom. In 1911 it was purchased by France and then sold to Italy, which in turn rented it back to the French under a 99-year lease for a nominal amount. Since 1874 it has been the headquarters of the French Embassy. The palace has three floors, which find clear expression on the superb, linear façade. The austere brick ornamentation is variously shaded (due to different baking temperatures), this colouring having been revealed during a recent restoration. It is unclear why such dissimilar bricks were used. Was this multicoloured brick layer intended to be visible, or were the different colours ultimately meant to be hidden with plaster? When one considers other Roman palazzos of the same period, the second hypothesis is more credible. A Latin inscription clearly visible on the façade commemorates the pope and cardinal responsible for the palazzo's construction. The interiors include works by important artists: Daniele da Volterra (the famous “Breeches-Maker,” who painted trousers on Michelangelo's nudes in the Sistine Chapel), Taddeo Zuccari, and Annibale Carracci. The palazzo blends seamlessly with the splendid piazza around it. Piazza Farnese unfolds symmetrically to the viewer with the austere and massive facade of the palazzo as a backdrop. There are two fountains, one on each side, made from two large basins originally from the Baths of Caracalla; a lily – the Farnese symbol – has been added to the centre of these. Both basins were originally located in front of the Basilica of San Marco (in the Piazza Venezia), and initially only one was placed in the centre of Piazza Farnese. Completing the piazza is the 18th- century church of Saint Brigida, a Swedish saint who founded a convent on the site in 1300. Facing the Palazzo Farnese is also the 18th- century palazzo of Gallo di Roccagiovine, begun by Baldassarre Peruzzi; its massive structure and large doors conceal a splendid interior courtyard and monumental staircase. For many years the piazza was the central place for Rome's tournaments, bullfights, and festivals. In addition, the spectacular summer flooding events that later made Piazza Navona famous started here.
15
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Palazzo Farnese
67 Piazza Farnese
15
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Farnese Palace Set in the middle of a small piazza, Palazzo Farnese is an impressive testament to the great artists of the Renaissance: Antonio da Sangallo, Michelangelo, Vignola, and Giacomo Della Porta. Considered one of the wonders of Rome, its sheer size has earned it the nickname “the die”. It all began when Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (the future Pope Paul III) purchased and then demolished the original buildings on the site to create the piazza and his own magnificent residence. Design of the project was awarded to Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. Work began in 1514, but when the original architect died in 1546, Michelangelo was called in. He designed the first two floors, built the third, and adorned the façade with a central balcony. He also had planned to build a bridge that would span the Tiber and connect the rear of the palazzo to the Villa Chigi – also called the “Farnesina”(the little Farnese) – on the opposite bank. But because of the death of Pope Paul III, the project was never completed, although a vestige remains in the form of a short portion of bridge that passes underneath the Via Giulia behind the palazzo. Vignola and Giacomo della Porta were also involved in the project. Some of the construction materials came from ancient Ostia quarries; the ceiling beams – which had to be very long and sturdy – were brought in from the Carnia woods. Ownership of the Palazzo Farnese changed repeatedly over the years. In the 18th century, the palazzo became the property of the Bourbon Kings of Naples and was re-named “Palazzo Regio Farnese”. For a period in 1860, Francesco II of Naples lived there after losing his kingdom. In 1911 it was purchased by France and then sold to Italy, which in turn rented it back to the French under a 99-year lease for a nominal amount. Since 1874 it has been the headquarters of the French Embassy. The palace has three floors, which find clear expression on the superb, linear façade. The austere brick ornamentation is variously shaded (due to different baking temperatures), this colouring having been revealed during a recent restoration. It is unclear why such dissimilar bricks were used. Was this multicoloured brick layer intended to be visible, or were the different colours ultimately meant to be hidden with plaster? When one considers other Roman palazzos of the same period, the second hypothesis is more credible. A Latin inscription clearly visible on the façade commemorates the pope and cardinal responsible for the palazzo's construction. The interiors include works by important artists: Daniele da Volterra (the famous “Breeches-Maker,” who painted trousers on Michelangelo's nudes in the Sistine Chapel), Taddeo Zuccari, and Annibale Carracci. The palazzo blends seamlessly with the splendid piazza around it. Piazza Farnese unfolds symmetrically to the viewer with the austere and massive facade of the palazzo as a backdrop. There are two fountains, one on each side, made from two large basins originally from the Baths of Caracalla; a lily – the Farnese symbol – has been added to the centre of these. Both basins were originally located in front of the Basilica of San Marco (in the Piazza Venezia), and initially only one was placed in the centre of Piazza Farnese. Completing the piazza is the 18th- century church of Saint Brigida, a Swedish saint who founded a convent on the site in 1300. Facing the Palazzo Farnese is also the 18th- century palazzo of Gallo di Roccagiovine, begun by Baldassarre Peruzzi; its massive structure and large doors conceal a splendid interior courtyard and monumental staircase. For many years the piazza was the central place for Rome's tournaments, bullfights, and festivals. In addition, the spectacular summer flooding events that later made Piazza Navona famous started here.
Quirinal Palace (palazzo del Quirinale) The Palazzo Quirinale, official home of the President of the Republic, overlooks the city from atop the hill for which it is named. This area was already inhabited during ancient Rome. Below the Corazzieri Barracks that are attached to the palace, traces of the Servian Walls – the oldest in the city – have been found, along with a temple podium. Emperor Vespasian's house may also have stood here. On the piazza stands the imposing Monte Cavallo Fountain with the two giants, Castor and Pollux, the Dioscuri. Originally from the Baths of Constantine, the statues are Roman copies of the Greek originals. The obelisk, though, came from Augustus' Mausoleum. Created in 1818, the fountain and the statues initially faced the Palazzo della Consulta but were re-oriented towards the Quirinal. The Palazzo of the Quirinal was built in the late 1500s as the summer residence of Pope Gregory XIII. The Pope sought a place to rest that was healthier than the Vatican or the Lateran Hills. The work was entrusted to the architect Ottavio Mascarino. In 1587 Pope Sixtus V purchased the land where the palace stood from the Papal State and at that point decided to expand the building. The work was awarded to Domenico Fontana, the trusted architect who was already busy with other jobsites in the area. The work was finished by Pope Paul V, who entrusted the work to the architect Flaminio Ponzio and then, upon his death, to Carlo Maderno. The latter created the wing overlooking the Via del Quirinale, with the Paolina Chapel, the Sala Regia, and the Papal Apartments. These buildings were so much higher than the rest of the palace that it became necessary to extend the existing façade; you can still make out these modifications on the face of the building today. Pope Urban VIII built an addition, added new land purchased from the surrounding area, and increased the size of the palazzo towards the east. The garden almost doubled in size, and the Pope built a large perimeter wall, of which little remains. Gian Lorenzo Bernini participated in the expansion project in the second half of the 1600s, and it was ultimately completed by Ferdinando Fuga in 1700. After 1870 however, with the end of the Papacy's temporal power and the Breach of Porta Pia, the Palazzo del Quirinale became the residence of the Savoys. Pope Pius IX was the last pope to live there. In 1947 the palazzo became the residence of the President of the Republic, together with relating apartments and offices. The first two Italian presidents, however, lived elsewhere. Inside the Scalone d'Onore (monumental staircase hall) there is an impressive fresco by Melozzo da Forlì that was formerly located in the apse of the Chiesa dei Santi Apostoli in Rome. Now it is on the landing and is most visible to visitors as they leave the palace. The Pope wanted to use the sacred themed painting as a reminder to guests that have visited the palazzo that they have just received the Papal blessing. The palace hosts numerous collections of all kinds of art: from paintings to statues, tapestries to clocks, furniture to porcelain, not counting the collections of Murano glass chandeliers and the carriages. Another Quirinal jewel is the Garden, which is considered a kind of “island” that overlooks Rome from a privileged vantage point. The layout has changed many times over the course of the centuries, depending on the period taste or that of the “illustrious tenants” of the palazzo. Today, the garden has a 17th-century flavour that fuses with the “Romantic” style of the late 18th-century, surrounding the Coffee House of that era. It was created by Ferdinando Fuga and was used to receive the Pope. On the piazza immediately opposite is the palazzo of the Scuderie del Quirinale (Quirinal Stables). It is famous for exhibitions that are among the most beautiful and celebrated in the capital. It dates back to the 1700s and it too is the work of Ferdinando Fuga. It is clear from the name that it was used for horses. In 1938, due to the change in the means of transportation, it was converted to a garage. Between 1997 and 1999, the Friulian Gae Aulenti, the architect responsible for the marvellous renovation of the Museo D'Orsay in Paris, created an exhibit space there that connects modern ideas with the palazzo's historic spaces.
47
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Quirinalpalatset
47
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Quirinal Palace (palazzo del Quirinale) The Palazzo Quirinale, official home of the President of the Republic, overlooks the city from atop the hill for which it is named. This area was already inhabited during ancient Rome. Below the Corazzieri Barracks that are attached to the palace, traces of the Servian Walls – the oldest in the city – have been found, along with a temple podium. Emperor Vespasian's house may also have stood here. On the piazza stands the imposing Monte Cavallo Fountain with the two giants, Castor and Pollux, the Dioscuri. Originally from the Baths of Constantine, the statues are Roman copies of the Greek originals. The obelisk, though, came from Augustus' Mausoleum. Created in 1818, the fountain and the statues initially faced the Palazzo della Consulta but were re-oriented towards the Quirinal. The Palazzo of the Quirinal was built in the late 1500s as the summer residence of Pope Gregory XIII. The Pope sought a place to rest that was healthier than the Vatican or the Lateran Hills. The work was entrusted to the architect Ottavio Mascarino. In 1587 Pope Sixtus V purchased the land where the palace stood from the Papal State and at that point decided to expand the building. The work was awarded to Domenico Fontana, the trusted architect who was already busy with other jobsites in the area. The work was finished by Pope Paul V, who entrusted the work to the architect Flaminio Ponzio and then, upon his death, to Carlo Maderno. The latter created the wing overlooking the Via del Quirinale, with the Paolina Chapel, the Sala Regia, and the Papal Apartments. These buildings were so much higher than the rest of the palace that it became necessary to extend the existing façade; you can still make out these modifications on the face of the building today. Pope Urban VIII built an addition, added new land purchased from the surrounding area, and increased the size of the palazzo towards the east. The garden almost doubled in size, and the Pope built a large perimeter wall, of which little remains. Gian Lorenzo Bernini participated in the expansion project in the second half of the 1600s, and it was ultimately completed by Ferdinando Fuga in 1700. After 1870 however, with the end of the Papacy's temporal power and the Breach of Porta Pia, the Palazzo del Quirinale became the residence of the Savoys. Pope Pius IX was the last pope to live there. In 1947 the palazzo became the residence of the President of the Republic, together with relating apartments and offices. The first two Italian presidents, however, lived elsewhere. Inside the Scalone d'Onore (monumental staircase hall) there is an impressive fresco by Melozzo da Forlì that was formerly located in the apse of the Chiesa dei Santi Apostoli in Rome. Now it is on the landing and is most visible to visitors as they leave the palace. The Pope wanted to use the sacred themed painting as a reminder to guests that have visited the palazzo that they have just received the Papal blessing. The palace hosts numerous collections of all kinds of art: from paintings to statues, tapestries to clocks, furniture to porcelain, not counting the collections of Murano glass chandeliers and the carriages. Another Quirinal jewel is the Garden, which is considered a kind of “island” that overlooks Rome from a privileged vantage point. The layout has changed many times over the course of the centuries, depending on the period taste or that of the “illustrious tenants” of the palazzo. Today, the garden has a 17th-century flavour that fuses with the “Romantic” style of the late 18th-century, surrounding the Coffee House of that era. It was created by Ferdinando Fuga and was used to receive the Pope. On the piazza immediately opposite is the palazzo of the Scuderie del Quirinale (Quirinal Stables). It is famous for exhibitions that are among the most beautiful and celebrated in the capital. It dates back to the 1700s and it too is the work of Ferdinando Fuga. It is clear from the name that it was used for horses. In 1938, due to the change in the means of transportation, it was converted to a garage. Between 1997 and 1999, the Friulian Gae Aulenti, the architect responsible for the marvellous renovation of the Museo D'Orsay in Paris, created an exhibit space there that connects modern ideas with the palazzo's historic spaces.
Temple of Hercules (Temple of Vesta) The national registry office (anagrafe) of modern times is built on the site of the Portus Tiberinus, the ancient river port to the south of the Portus Tiberinus, the ancient river port to the south of the Forum Holitorium. Next to it stands the rectangular Temple of Portunus (god of ports), better known as the Temple of Fortuna Virilis, founded in the 5th or 3rd century BC. Over the ages the present building, which dates from the 1st century BC, has undergone a series of restorations. Built of tufa and travertine, both temples were covered with stucco decorations. The circular temple farther to the south, close to the Tiber, is the oldest marble edifice to have survived in Rome. Although long known as the Temple of Vesta, it was in fact dedicated to Hercules Victor.
Temple of Hercules Victor
Temple of Hercules (Temple of Vesta) The national registry office (anagrafe) of modern times is built on the site of the Portus Tiberinus, the ancient river port to the south of the Portus Tiberinus, the ancient river port to the south of the Forum Holitorium. Next to it stands the rectangular Temple of Portunus (god of ports), better known as the Temple of Fortuna Virilis, founded in the 5th or 3rd century BC. Over the ages the present building, which dates from the 1st century BC, has undergone a series of restorations. Built of tufa and travertine, both temples were covered with stucco decorations. The circular temple farther to the south, close to the Tiber, is the oldest marble edifice to have survived in Rome. Although long known as the Temple of Vesta, it was in fact dedicated to Hercules Victor.
Temple of Portunus (Fortuna Virilis) The national registry office (anagrafe) of modern times is built on the site of the Portus Tiberinus, the ancient river port to the south of the Portus Tiberinus, the ancient river port to the south of the Forum Holitorium. Next to it stands the rectangular Temple of Portunus (god of ports), better known as the Temple of Fortuna Virilis, founded in the 5th or 3rd century BC. Over the ages the present building, which dates from the 1st century BC, has undergone a series of restorations. Built of tufa and travertine, both temples were covered with stucco decorations. The circular temple farther to the south, close to the Tiber, is the oldest marble edifice to have survived in Rome. Although long known as the Temple of Vesta, it was in fact dedicated to Hercules Victor.
Tempio di Portuno
Temple of Portunus (Fortuna Virilis) The national registry office (anagrafe) of modern times is built on the site of the Portus Tiberinus, the ancient river port to the south of the Portus Tiberinus, the ancient river port to the south of the Forum Holitorium. Next to it stands the rectangular Temple of Portunus (god of ports), better known as the Temple of Fortuna Virilis, founded in the 5th or 3rd century BC. Over the ages the present building, which dates from the 1st century BC, has undergone a series of restorations. Built of tufa and travertine, both temples were covered with stucco decorations. The circular temple farther to the south, close to the Tiber, is the oldest marble edifice to have survived in Rome. Although long known as the Temple of Vesta, it was in fact dedicated to Hercules Victor.
Tiber Island (Isola Tiberina) The Tiber Island has always been a place of mystery, wrapped in legend, surrounded by the river and forever tied to the origins of Rome. Since prehistoric times, the island has been the easiest point of crossing the river towards the commercial roads to the north and south of Rome and it was certainly not by chance that the first and most ancient of the city’s river ports was born right in front of it. This singular piece of land in the middle of the Tiber River was called by the Romans “between two bridges”. In fact, the island was connected to the mainland by the Cestium bridge on one side and by the Fabricium bridge (called also the Bridge of the Jews for its proximity to the Hebrew Ghetto) on the other. There was a terrible legend having to do with this second bridge: there are four marble heads per side on the mainland end. It was said that they were the heads of four architects hired by the pope Sixtus V for the restoration of the island and that, since they were evidently not in total agreement with the pope, at the restoration’s end —they were decapitated! At any rate, there are eight marble heads and they come down to us from the Roman era. The gruesome anecdote is probably due to the pontiffs fame as a “head-chopper” because of his heavy hand in regards to the repression of crime. The Tiber Island has extremely old origins that can be sifted from the numerous legends regarding its beginnings: apparently it was built on the ruins of an ancient ship, the shape of which it still retains. The Romans, to give more credence to the story, built a stone bow and stern, giving it the look of a warship —with an obelisk in the middle for a mast! The presence of hospitals on the island is tied to another ancient legend; the historian Livius wrote that, because of a terrible plague that had befallen the city, the Romans traveled all the way to Epidaurus, in Greece to ask the oracle there how to stop the epidemic. The priests at the largest sanctuary of the god of medicine, Aesculapius, gave the Roman ambassadors a sacred serpent. Returning home, just as the ship was pulling into the port of the Tiber, the snake jumped ship, swam to the island and disappeared into the thick vegetation. A temple was dedicated to Aesculapius on the island: it had a pit full of snakes sacred to the god, that were fed by the priests. So it was that the island was consecrated to the god of medicine and since that time has been famous as a place of hospitals and healing. Actually, the island was an excellent place for the purpose because it offered guaranteed isolation from the rest of the community; in fact, during the plague of the 1600s, the entire island was transformed into a quarantine hospital. In the year 1000, in place of the temple of Aesculapius, the church of Saint Bartholomew was built, although it now has a Baroque façade. Next to the temple there was a portico where a rather particular therapy was practiced, the "incubatio": this consisted of keeping the sick out in the cold and without food for several days so that they should be purified. The poor souls then had to recount their dreams to the priests who would duly diagnose: a sort of rudimental form of psychoanalysis. As for its efficacy…well, we’ll probably never know. The Romans built another two temples on the island: one was dedicated to Faunus, who protected women giving birth. Even today, the hospital on the island is well-known for its excellent maternity ward. In line with the island’s ancient vocation, during the Middle Ages, a structure was created to serve pilgrims, the poor and the sick, and later became a hospital that still functions to this day. Its name, "Fatebenefratelli"—which means “do well or do good, brothers”- seems to come from the singsong sort of mantra that the friar-doctors of the hospital would repeat continuously as they moved through the streets. Over the years the "Fatebenefratelli" improved the precarious and unhealthy conditions in which they had found the hospital and it was they who took care of restoring the second church on the island, that of Saint John Calibita. On the façade of the church there’s a copy of a fresco of the Madonna of the Lamp, protagonist in two miraculous events; it seems that the flame of the lamp in question, when submersed by the flooding Tiber, refused to go out and later, the Madonna was seen weeping just before Napoleon’s invasion of Italy! The island is also famous for what remains of a legendary bridge, Ponte Emilio, better known by the Romans as "Broken Bridge": it was actually Rome’s very first stone bridge, restored and repaired several times due to damage caused by the turbulent Tiber but the river finally got the better of it, leaving only the few surviving remains we see today. Life in the the middle of the Tiber wasn’t always easy, particularly because of the frequent periodic floods that have been part of Rome’s history for more than 2600 years. Strolling through the center you may notice plaques on many of the houses that record the extraordinary levels reached by the flood waters. Sometimes the Tiber flooded more than 17 meters high inside the city, often arriving right in the center of town, forcing people to get around in boats! The hospital on the Tiber Island was many times on the verge of being submerged but not everyone knows that the portholes that close the windows on the first floor are watertight and flood-proof! It was in 1870, after one of the most disastrous floods, that the decision was made to build up the banks of the Tiber with the high walls of travertine we see today. If, on the one hand, they have helped avoid further flood damage, on the other, they inevitably changed the face of Rome and its relationship with the river. Someone actually proposed to flatten out the Tiber Island to widen the riverbed. Fortunately, the extravagant idea never took hold and the island is still there, a picturesque place of care and healing, romantic walks and a privileged viewpoint to observe the blond Tiber up close.
53
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Tiber Island
53
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Tiber Island (Isola Tiberina) The Tiber Island has always been a place of mystery, wrapped in legend, surrounded by the river and forever tied to the origins of Rome. Since prehistoric times, the island has been the easiest point of crossing the river towards the commercial roads to the north and south of Rome and it was certainly not by chance that the first and most ancient of the city’s river ports was born right in front of it. This singular piece of land in the middle of the Tiber River was called by the Romans “between two bridges”. In fact, the island was connected to the mainland by the Cestium bridge on one side and by the Fabricium bridge (called also the Bridge of the Jews for its proximity to the Hebrew Ghetto) on the other. There was a terrible legend having to do with this second bridge: there are four marble heads per side on the mainland end. It was said that they were the heads of four architects hired by the pope Sixtus V for the restoration of the island and that, since they were evidently not in total agreement with the pope, at the restoration’s end —they were decapitated! At any rate, there are eight marble heads and they come down to us from the Roman era. The gruesome anecdote is probably due to the pontiffs fame as a “head-chopper” because of his heavy hand in regards to the repression of crime. The Tiber Island has extremely old origins that can be sifted from the numerous legends regarding its beginnings: apparently it was built on the ruins of an ancient ship, the shape of which it still retains. The Romans, to give more credence to the story, built a stone bow and stern, giving it the look of a warship —with an obelisk in the middle for a mast! The presence of hospitals on the island is tied to another ancient legend; the historian Livius wrote that, because of a terrible plague that had befallen the city, the Romans traveled all the way to Epidaurus, in Greece to ask the oracle there how to stop the epidemic. The priests at the largest sanctuary of the god of medicine, Aesculapius, gave the Roman ambassadors a sacred serpent. Returning home, just as the ship was pulling into the port of the Tiber, the snake jumped ship, swam to the island and disappeared into the thick vegetation. A temple was dedicated to Aesculapius on the island: it had a pit full of snakes sacred to the god, that were fed by the priests. So it was that the island was consecrated to the god of medicine and since that time has been famous as a place of hospitals and healing. Actually, the island was an excellent place for the purpose because it offered guaranteed isolation from the rest of the community; in fact, during the plague of the 1600s, the entire island was transformed into a quarantine hospital. In the year 1000, in place of the temple of Aesculapius, the church of Saint Bartholomew was built, although it now has a Baroque façade. Next to the temple there was a portico where a rather particular therapy was practiced, the "incubatio": this consisted of keeping the sick out in the cold and without food for several days so that they should be purified. The poor souls then had to recount their dreams to the priests who would duly diagnose: a sort of rudimental form of psychoanalysis. As for its efficacy…well, we’ll probably never know. The Romans built another two temples on the island: one was dedicated to Faunus, who protected women giving birth. Even today, the hospital on the island is well-known for its excellent maternity ward. In line with the island’s ancient vocation, during the Middle Ages, a structure was created to serve pilgrims, the poor and the sick, and later became a hospital that still functions to this day. Its name, "Fatebenefratelli"—which means “do well or do good, brothers”- seems to come from the singsong sort of mantra that the friar-doctors of the hospital would repeat continuously as they moved through the streets. Over the years the "Fatebenefratelli" improved the precarious and unhealthy conditions in which they had found the hospital and it was they who took care of restoring the second church on the island, that of Saint John Calibita. On the façade of the church there’s a copy of a fresco of the Madonna of the Lamp, protagonist in two miraculous events; it seems that the flame of the lamp in question, when submersed by the flooding Tiber, refused to go out and later, the Madonna was seen weeping just before Napoleon’s invasion of Italy! The island is also famous for what remains of a legendary bridge, Ponte Emilio, better known by the Romans as "Broken Bridge": it was actually Rome’s very first stone bridge, restored and repaired several times due to damage caused by the turbulent Tiber but the river finally got the better of it, leaving only the few surviving remains we see today. Life in the the middle of the Tiber wasn’t always easy, particularly because of the frequent periodic floods that have been part of Rome’s history for more than 2600 years. Strolling through the center you may notice plaques on many of the houses that record the extraordinary levels reached by the flood waters. Sometimes the Tiber flooded more than 17 meters high inside the city, often arriving right in the center of town, forcing people to get around in boats! The hospital on the Tiber Island was many times on the verge of being submerged but not everyone knows that the portholes that close the windows on the first floor are watertight and flood-proof! It was in 1870, after one of the most disastrous floods, that the decision was made to build up the banks of the Tiber with the high walls of travertine we see today. If, on the one hand, they have helped avoid further flood damage, on the other, they inevitably changed the face of Rome and its relationship with the river. Someone actually proposed to flatten out the Tiber Island to widen the riverbed. Fortunately, the extravagant idea never took hold and the island is still there, a picturesque place of care and healing, romantic walks and a privileged viewpoint to observe the blond Tiber up close.
Giardino degli Aranci (Parco Savello) The tranquil Garden of Oranges, also known as Parco Savello, affords fantastic views of the many monuments, roof tops and domes of Rome, encapsulating flavors of the modern and medieval on its shady walkways. The park itself fits neatly behind the ancient Basilica of Santa Sabina, and beside the Piazza Pietro d'Illiria, named after the founder of the church. Visitors to this secluded square are greeted by the scowling face of Giacomo Della Porta's fountain, perhaps made in reference to Oceanus, a River god. The mask had several previous locations, including the Forum and Lungotevere Gianicolense, before coming to rest on the peaceful Aventine Hill. To the side of the garden are the remains of a wall which once surrounded the Tenth Century Savelli Castle. Built by Alberico II, and inherited by Ottone IIIafter the first Millennium, it was later given to the Dominican Order, who transformed the castle into a monastery, and the small park into a vegetable garden. Legends surrounding Spanish Saint Dominic gave the garden its name, and its first orange tree: having transported the sapling from his homeland, he planted it close to the cloister where it flourished. Legend tells how Saint Catherine of Siena picked the oranges from this tree and made candied fruit, which she gave to Pope Urban VI. The tree remains to this day, visible through a "porthole" in the wall of the nave. Miraculously, a younger sapling grew on its remains, which continues to bear fruit. Years later, orange trees were added to the monastery garden, which became known as the Garden of Oranges. Though they produce bitter fruit, they give a pleasant shady air to the garden, affording a lovely retreat from the bustle and noise of urban life. The garden's present form is the result of the work of architect Raffaele de Vico, creator of many of Rome's "green spaces". Upon entering the Garden of Oranges, the ancient apse of the Basilica of Santa Sabina appears, while, on the opposite side, scanty remains of the old Savelli fortress, drawbridge and towers are visible. The garden was designed on a symmetrical plan, drawing visitors ever closer to the central walkway leading to the terrace. A couple of steps forward offers a fantastic panorama of the Tevere, the ancient temples of the Forum Boarium, Santa Maria in Cosmedin (where the Mouth of Truth is found) the Gianicolo, and the imposing dome of St. Peter's from afar. During the summer it is no surprise that the garden is the choice setting for theatrical productions, a favorite resting spot for visitors touring Rome and the haunt of lovers. Perhaps the inspiring view and romantic ambience offers the ideal prompt for falling at the feet of one's beloved!
170
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Giardino degli Aranci
170
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Giardino degli Aranci (Parco Savello) The tranquil Garden of Oranges, also known as Parco Savello, affords fantastic views of the many monuments, roof tops and domes of Rome, encapsulating flavors of the modern and medieval on its shady walkways. The park itself fits neatly behind the ancient Basilica of Santa Sabina, and beside the Piazza Pietro d'Illiria, named after the founder of the church. Visitors to this secluded square are greeted by the scowling face of Giacomo Della Porta's fountain, perhaps made in reference to Oceanus, a River god. The mask had several previous locations, including the Forum and Lungotevere Gianicolense, before coming to rest on the peaceful Aventine Hill. To the side of the garden are the remains of a wall which once surrounded the Tenth Century Savelli Castle. Built by Alberico II, and inherited by Ottone IIIafter the first Millennium, it was later given to the Dominican Order, who transformed the castle into a monastery, and the small park into a vegetable garden. Legends surrounding Spanish Saint Dominic gave the garden its name, and its first orange tree: having transported the sapling from his homeland, he planted it close to the cloister where it flourished. Legend tells how Saint Catherine of Siena picked the oranges from this tree and made candied fruit, which she gave to Pope Urban VI. The tree remains to this day, visible through a "porthole" in the wall of the nave. Miraculously, a younger sapling grew on its remains, which continues to bear fruit. Years later, orange trees were added to the monastery garden, which became known as the Garden of Oranges. Though they produce bitter fruit, they give a pleasant shady air to the garden, affording a lovely retreat from the bustle and noise of urban life. The garden's present form is the result of the work of architect Raffaele de Vico, creator of many of Rome's "green spaces". Upon entering the Garden of Oranges, the ancient apse of the Basilica of Santa Sabina appears, while, on the opposite side, scanty remains of the old Savelli fortress, drawbridge and towers are visible. The garden was designed on a symmetrical plan, drawing visitors ever closer to the central walkway leading to the terrace. A couple of steps forward offers a fantastic panorama of the Tevere, the ancient temples of the Forum Boarium, Santa Maria in Cosmedin (where the Mouth of Truth is found) the Gianicolo, and the imposing dome of St. Peter's from afar. During the summer it is no surprise that the garden is the choice setting for theatrical productions, a favorite resting spot for visitors touring Rome and the haunt of lovers. Perhaps the inspiring view and romantic ambience offers the ideal prompt for falling at the feet of one's beloved!
Basilica of Santa Sabina After a first walk up the Aventine, along the road of the same name, the splendid, ancient basilica of Santa Sabina rises in the square named after Peter of Illyria, the monk who founded the church and the convent. Sabina was a rich matron of Avezzano, who lived in the 4th century, beheaded under the Emperor Vespasian, or perhaps Hadrian, because she had been converted to Christianity by her servant Seraphia, who was stoned to death. Peter of Illyria founded the basilica in 425 AD, under the pontificate of Celestine I, precisely where the house of the martyr stood. As was the custom until late ancient times, the building was constructed with re-used materials, including 24 marble columns from the nearby temple of Juno Regina. The building works in the church over the centuries were numerous and of various kinds: in 824 pope Eugene II had a silver ciborium made, which was afterwards stolen during the Sack of Rome in 1527. During the same century, for reasons relating to defence, it was incorporated into the fort built by the Crescenzi family. From the late 1500s to the mid 1600s the inside was restored, in full baroque style, first by Domenico Fontana, then by Borromini. After 1870, when the monasteries were suppressed, the church was transformed into a lazaretto and later became the first steam laundry in Rome! The last thorough-going restoration was the work of Antonio Muñoz, an architect at the service of the Mussolinian interventions, who attempted to restore the church to the early Christian appearance of its origins, not without distortions and anachronisms, as can easily be noticed with a little attention. The excavations of the last century brought to light the structures that stood there before the church was built: remains of the Servian walls, two small temples of archaic age, houses of the Republican period transformed in the 2nd century AD into a sanctuary of the Egyptian goddess Isis, a spa complex and a domus of the 3rd-4th century with a large hall, perhaps precisely the house of Santa Sabina. The Basilica has been witness and the setting for numerous historical events: in 537 pope Siverius hid there to escape from Belisarius who however deposed him after a brief imprisonment. In 590 a procession began from Santa Sabina, promoted by pope Gregory the Great to ward off the terrible plague afflicting Rome. It ceased when the Archangel Michael appeared on the Mausoleum of Hadrian, which since then has been called Castel Sant'Angelo. In he 10th century the basilica was combined with the fortress of the emperor Albericus II and became the point of reference for the imperial faction, so that it became the mausoleum for the remains of the emperor's faithful followers. In the following century the church passed to the Savelli family and pope Honorius IIIgave it to St Dominic of Guzman, founder of the Dominican Order. His cell is still preserved inside the complex, transformed into a chapel. In 1287 the Conclave that was to elect the successor of pope Honorius IV met at Santa Sabina, but a malaria epidemic decimated the cardinals. The survivors, not caring about the vacant papal seat, all fled, except for Girolamo Masci, who was elected pope Nicholas IV almost a year later, a rich reward for being unperturbed in the face of danger! One of the stories of San Domenico, who lived and worked in the monastery, concerns the black stone rotunda (in reality a balance weight from Roman times) thrown by the devil at the saint, who was praying over the remains of the martyrs laid under a marble tombstone. The devil missed the target and the stone landed on the gravestone reducing it to fragments, well visible today, but mounted on a column on the left of the entrance. Although the responsibility for the incident was attributed to diabolical action, in reality it was the architect Domenico Fontana, during restoration works in 1857, who accidentally broke the gravestone; its fragments were recovered and reassembled only much later. The portico that acts as a backdrop to piazza Pietro d'Illiria is in the shelter of the long side of the Basilica; it was originally made up of black marble columns, which are now in the Vatican. Access to the church is through another portico on the side facing the square, through an atrium surrounded by ancient columns, housing some of the fragments found during excavations. The portal of the basilica is a little jewel in cypress wood dating from the 5th century; it was restored in 1836, but only 18 of the original 28 panels have survived. They represent scenes from the New and Old Testaments, not without some retouching due to the historical juncture: in the panel depicting Moses leading the Israelites across the Red Sea, the face of the Pharaoh has been modified, taking on a strong resemblance to Napoleon! An evident polemical note by the restorer who does not seem to have nurtured much sympathy for Napoleon, even though he had died fifteen years earlier! The inside of the church, with a typical layout of the early Christian basilicas, is with three naves, divided by 24 re-used columns. The imposing apse, crowned by a triumphal arch, is decorated with Christ among the apostles, a fresco by Taddeo Zuccari. The so-called "schola cantorum", at the centre of the nave, is in reality the result of the restoration by Muñoz, who in 1936 created it in the image of that of San Clemente, using plutei (decorated marble slabs) found in the church. Large windows opening in the top part of the central nave give light to the church and used to illuminate the sparkling mosaics, made on the pattern of those at Ravenna, which decorated the central nave.
20
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Basilica di Santa Sabina all'Aventino
1 Piazza Pietro D'Illiria
20
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Basilica of Santa Sabina After a first walk up the Aventine, along the road of the same name, the splendid, ancient basilica of Santa Sabina rises in the square named after Peter of Illyria, the monk who founded the church and the convent. Sabina was a rich matron of Avezzano, who lived in the 4th century, beheaded under the Emperor Vespasian, or perhaps Hadrian, because she had been converted to Christianity by her servant Seraphia, who was stoned to death. Peter of Illyria founded the basilica in 425 AD, under the pontificate of Celestine I, precisely where the house of the martyr stood. As was the custom until late ancient times, the building was constructed with re-used materials, including 24 marble columns from the nearby temple of Juno Regina. The building works in the church over the centuries were numerous and of various kinds: in 824 pope Eugene II had a silver ciborium made, which was afterwards stolen during the Sack of Rome in 1527. During the same century, for reasons relating to defence, it was incorporated into the fort built by the Crescenzi family. From the late 1500s to the mid 1600s the inside was restored, in full baroque style, first by Domenico Fontana, then by Borromini. After 1870, when the monasteries were suppressed, the church was transformed into a lazaretto and later became the first steam laundry in Rome! The last thorough-going restoration was the work of Antonio Muñoz, an architect at the service of the Mussolinian interventions, who attempted to restore the church to the early Christian appearance of its origins, not without distortions and anachronisms, as can easily be noticed with a little attention. The excavations of the last century brought to light the structures that stood there before the church was built: remains of the Servian walls, two small temples of archaic age, houses of the Republican period transformed in the 2nd century AD into a sanctuary of the Egyptian goddess Isis, a spa complex and a domus of the 3rd-4th century with a large hall, perhaps precisely the house of Santa Sabina. The Basilica has been witness and the setting for numerous historical events: in 537 pope Siverius hid there to escape from Belisarius who however deposed him after a brief imprisonment. In 590 a procession began from Santa Sabina, promoted by pope Gregory the Great to ward off the terrible plague afflicting Rome. It ceased when the Archangel Michael appeared on the Mausoleum of Hadrian, which since then has been called Castel Sant'Angelo. In he 10th century the basilica was combined with the fortress of the emperor Albericus II and became the point of reference for the imperial faction, so that it became the mausoleum for the remains of the emperor's faithful followers. In the following century the church passed to the Savelli family and pope Honorius IIIgave it to St Dominic of Guzman, founder of the Dominican Order. His cell is still preserved inside the complex, transformed into a chapel. In 1287 the Conclave that was to elect the successor of pope Honorius IV met at Santa Sabina, but a malaria epidemic decimated the cardinals. The survivors, not caring about the vacant papal seat, all fled, except for Girolamo Masci, who was elected pope Nicholas IV almost a year later, a rich reward for being unperturbed in the face of danger! One of the stories of San Domenico, who lived and worked in the monastery, concerns the black stone rotunda (in reality a balance weight from Roman times) thrown by the devil at the saint, who was praying over the remains of the martyrs laid under a marble tombstone. The devil missed the target and the stone landed on the gravestone reducing it to fragments, well visible today, but mounted on a column on the left of the entrance. Although the responsibility for the incident was attributed to diabolical action, in reality it was the architect Domenico Fontana, during restoration works in 1857, who accidentally broke the gravestone; its fragments were recovered and reassembled only much later. The portico that acts as a backdrop to piazza Pietro d'Illiria is in the shelter of the long side of the Basilica; it was originally made up of black marble columns, which are now in the Vatican. Access to the church is through another portico on the side facing the square, through an atrium surrounded by ancient columns, housing some of the fragments found during excavations. The portal of the basilica is a little jewel in cypress wood dating from the 5th century; it was restored in 1836, but only 18 of the original 28 panels have survived. They represent scenes from the New and Old Testaments, not without some retouching due to the historical juncture: in the panel depicting Moses leading the Israelites across the Red Sea, the face of the Pharaoh has been modified, taking on a strong resemblance to Napoleon! An evident polemical note by the restorer who does not seem to have nurtured much sympathy for Napoleon, even though he had died fifteen years earlier! The inside of the church, with a typical layout of the early Christian basilicas, is with three naves, divided by 24 re-used columns. The imposing apse, crowned by a triumphal arch, is decorated with Christ among the apostles, a fresco by Taddeo Zuccari. The so-called "schola cantorum", at the centre of the nave, is in reality the result of the restoration by Muñoz, who in 1936 created it in the image of that of San Clemente, using plutei (decorated marble slabs) found in the church. Large windows opening in the top part of the central nave give light to the church and used to illuminate the sparkling mosaics, made on the pattern of those at Ravenna, which decorated the central nave.
The area between the Tiber and the group of hills nearest the river - Capitoline,Palatine and Aventine - was occupied in ancient times by the Forum Boarium(from bos, ox), where the cattle market was held. This plain was of fundamental importance from Rome's earliest times, as the meeting point of the Tiber with the road running north-south to connect Etruria with Campania. In the area between the three temples of the nearby Forum Holitorium and the temple of Portunus, the deity protecting the port, lay the commercial port of the city. The legends about the Foro Boario indicate the market precisely in this point, on the bank of the river, as the first nucleus for the development of the city. The two temples of the Forum Boarium in Hellenistic style date from the Republican age (509-27 BC): the temple of Portunus, already mentioned - the so-called Temple of Virile Fortune, and the temple to Hercules the Victor also known as the temple of Vesta.
28
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Aventinen
28
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
The area between the Tiber and the group of hills nearest the river - Capitoline,Palatine and Aventine - was occupied in ancient times by the Forum Boarium(from bos, ox), where the cattle market was held. This plain was of fundamental importance from Rome's earliest times, as the meeting point of the Tiber with the road running north-south to connect Etruria with Campania. In the area between the three temples of the nearby Forum Holitorium and the temple of Portunus, the deity protecting the port, lay the commercial port of the city. The legends about the Foro Boario indicate the market precisely in this point, on the bank of the river, as the first nucleus for the development of the city. The two temples of the Forum Boarium in Hellenistic style date from the Republican age (509-27 BC): the temple of Portunus, already mentioned - the so-called Temple of Virile Fortune, and the temple to Hercules the Victor also known as the temple of Vesta.
Ara Pacis Augustae "When I returned to Rome from Spain and Gaul after successfully completing campaigns in these provinces, the Senate consecrated the Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace) at the Campus Martius in honour of my return; it was to be a place where magistrates, priests, and vestal virgins would hold annual sacrifices.” This is from Emperor Augustus's accounts of his campaigns in Gaul and Spain. And in fact it was he who in 13 B.C. called the vote for the altar's construction and in 9 B.C. dedicated the Ara Pacis Augustae to peace, personified as a Roman goddess. The altar was built on the exact spot in Campus Martius where victories were traditionally celebrated. Its only purpose was to aggrandize Augustus's campaigns and to glorify the Pax Romana: the period of increased prosperity resulting from his reign. Moreover, Augustus was Caesar's adopted son, and to legitimize his seizure of power, it was crucial to emphasize his connection with his illustrious ancestor, Aeneas. The ceremony inaugurating the Ara Pacis took place on the birthday of Augustus's wife, Livia. It was an impressive structure, but like most of Rome's monuments, it became buried over time beneath the constantly rising ground level. It wasn't until the end of 1568 that the first fragments were uncovered. During the 1800s a series of excavations followed one after the other in quick succession; following work in 1938, the monument was finally restored in its entirety (albeit with some inaccuracies). A pavilion, built expressly for this recovery work, was situated alongside the Mausoleum of Augustus, the funerary monument built by the emperor. However, the original location of the Ara Pacis was probably a considerable distance away.Its original appearance was reconstructed based on descriptions found in written sources as well as depictions found on Roman coins. It was a nearly square enclosure mounted atop a low podium, with the altar inside, up a flight of stairs. The enclosure was covered inside and out with skilfully executed decorative reliefs; figures of different thicknesses made it possible to perceive the various depths of the scene. The Ara Pacis successfully blends many different styles: classical Greek style in the procession friezes, Hellenistic style in the panels, and the typically Roman style of the altar decoration. This variety and eclecticism suggest that the work was probably carried out by Greek workshops. The exterior frieze has floral and small animal motifs. On the side with the altar entrance are the Lupercal Panel and Aeneas Sacrificing to the Penates. The first panel, of which only a few fragments remain, illustrates the myth of the founding of Rome: recognizable are the god Mars and the twins Romulus and Remusbeing nursed by a wolf. The second scene depicts Aeneas, with covered head and accompanied by his son Ascanius, offering a sacrifice at an altar to the Penates, the household gods that protect the family. The relief on the other side, which depicts the Personification of Rome seated atop a pile of weapons, is however almost completely lost. The short sides depict a procession consecrating the altar, resembling the frieze found at the Parthenon in Athens. There are two parts: one with the priests and the other with Augustus's family. The family is carefully arranged, based on succession to the throne, and it is no coincidence that the figures are located on two floors. Augustus is surrounded by his retinue and is wearing the robe of Pontifex Maximus (the highest authority). Like Aeneas, his head is covered. The imperial family is bit further in front: discernable are Augustus's lieutenant, Agrippa, then the emperor's nephew and wife, and followed by siblings, half-sisters, and other potential successors to the throne. The north side is in much worse condition, and the heads of the figures were reconstructed during the 16th century. The inside face of the enclosure has vertical grooves mimicking a fence, probably the same one that was originally used to enclose the sacred area. Most ancient Roman altars were surrounded by a sacred enclosure. The altar was accessed via a series of steps and was used for animal sacrifices. It is decorated with female figures that may represent the provinces of the Empire. The uppermost frieze, however, depicts the annual sacrifice held there with the Vestal Virgins and the Pontifex Maximus, together with priests and the animals to be sacrificed. In contrast to those on the exterior of the enclosure, the figures carved on the altar are depicted in high relief. In 2006 the old pavilion housing the ancient monument was replaced by a modern building designed by the architect Richard Meier. The stainless steel and travertine structure has sparked varied reactions and heated debate.
7
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Ara Pacis Augustae
190-180 Via di Ripetta
7
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Ara Pacis Augustae "When I returned to Rome from Spain and Gaul after successfully completing campaigns in these provinces, the Senate consecrated the Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace) at the Campus Martius in honour of my return; it was to be a place where magistrates, priests, and vestal virgins would hold annual sacrifices.” This is from Emperor Augustus's accounts of his campaigns in Gaul and Spain. And in fact it was he who in 13 B.C. called the vote for the altar's construction and in 9 B.C. dedicated the Ara Pacis Augustae to peace, personified as a Roman goddess. The altar was built on the exact spot in Campus Martius where victories were traditionally celebrated. Its only purpose was to aggrandize Augustus's campaigns and to glorify the Pax Romana: the period of increased prosperity resulting from his reign. Moreover, Augustus was Caesar's adopted son, and to legitimize his seizure of power, it was crucial to emphasize his connection with his illustrious ancestor, Aeneas. The ceremony inaugurating the Ara Pacis took place on the birthday of Augustus's wife, Livia. It was an impressive structure, but like most of Rome's monuments, it became buried over time beneath the constantly rising ground level. It wasn't until the end of 1568 that the first fragments were uncovered. During the 1800s a series of excavations followed one after the other in quick succession; following work in 1938, the monument was finally restored in its entirety (albeit with some inaccuracies). A pavilion, built expressly for this recovery work, was situated alongside the Mausoleum of Augustus, the funerary monument built by the emperor. However, the original location of the Ara Pacis was probably a considerable distance away.Its original appearance was reconstructed based on descriptions found in written sources as well as depictions found on Roman coins. It was a nearly square enclosure mounted atop a low podium, with the altar inside, up a flight of stairs. The enclosure was covered inside and out with skilfully executed decorative reliefs; figures of different thicknesses made it possible to perceive the various depths of the scene. The Ara Pacis successfully blends many different styles: classical Greek style in the procession friezes, Hellenistic style in the panels, and the typically Roman style of the altar decoration. This variety and eclecticism suggest that the work was probably carried out by Greek workshops. The exterior frieze has floral and small animal motifs. On the side with the altar entrance are the Lupercal Panel and Aeneas Sacrificing to the Penates. The first panel, of which only a few fragments remain, illustrates the myth of the founding of Rome: recognizable are the god Mars and the twins Romulus and Remusbeing nursed by a wolf. The second scene depicts Aeneas, with covered head and accompanied by his son Ascanius, offering a sacrifice at an altar to the Penates, the household gods that protect the family. The relief on the other side, which depicts the Personification of Rome seated atop a pile of weapons, is however almost completely lost. The short sides depict a procession consecrating the altar, resembling the frieze found at the Parthenon in Athens. There are two parts: one with the priests and the other with Augustus's family. The family is carefully arranged, based on succession to the throne, and it is no coincidence that the figures are located on two floors. Augustus is surrounded by his retinue and is wearing the robe of Pontifex Maximus (the highest authority). Like Aeneas, his head is covered. The imperial family is bit further in front: discernable are Augustus's lieutenant, Agrippa, then the emperor's nephew and wife, and followed by siblings, half-sisters, and other potential successors to the throne. The north side is in much worse condition, and the heads of the figures were reconstructed during the 16th century. The inside face of the enclosure has vertical grooves mimicking a fence, probably the same one that was originally used to enclose the sacred area. Most ancient Roman altars were surrounded by a sacred enclosure. The altar was accessed via a series of steps and was used for animal sacrifices. It is decorated with female figures that may represent the provinces of the Empire. The uppermost frieze, however, depicts the annual sacrifice held there with the Vestal Virgins and the Pontifex Maximus, together with priests and the animals to be sacrificed. In contrast to those on the exterior of the enclosure, the figures carved on the altar are depicted in high relief. In 2006 the old pavilion housing the ancient monument was replaced by a modern building designed by the architect Richard Meier. The stainless steel and travertine structure has sparked varied reactions and heated debate.
Piazza Venezia The current look of Piazza Venezia is the result of demolition and reconstruction works begun at the end of the 1800s and ending in the early 1900s. Standing out more than anything else is the Vittoriano, mammoth and controversial monument to Victor Emmanuel II. Here we find the Altar to the Fatherland that holds the remains of the Unknown Soldier, in memory of all the fallen soldiers that never received a proper burial. An ancient quarter filled with Renaissance and medieval buildings was demolished to make way for it and the Palazzetto Venezia, that originally closed the piazza, was dismantled and reassembled next to Palazzo Venezia, where it can be found today. At the center of the Vittoriano rises the bronze monument of the king seated astride a horse: it is so huge that, when the works were completed, a banquet was held inside the horses stomach! The Vittoriano is 81 meters high and the chariots at its summit are visible from most of Rome. The construction of the edifice caused much controversy among art critics, so much so that writers and journalists gave it names like “the wedding cake” or “the typewriter”. On the long side of the piazza, Palazzo Venezia, with its imposing facade, was initially the headquarters for popes but during the fascist era, Mussolini used it as the regime's main palace, with its balcony, sadly famous for being the place from which war was announced
84
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Monumento a Vittoria Emanuele Ⅱ
84
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Piazza Venezia The current look of Piazza Venezia is the result of demolition and reconstruction works begun at the end of the 1800s and ending in the early 1900s. Standing out more than anything else is the Vittoriano, mammoth and controversial monument to Victor Emmanuel II. Here we find the Altar to the Fatherland that holds the remains of the Unknown Soldier, in memory of all the fallen soldiers that never received a proper burial. An ancient quarter filled with Renaissance and medieval buildings was demolished to make way for it and the Palazzetto Venezia, that originally closed the piazza, was dismantled and reassembled next to Palazzo Venezia, where it can be found today. At the center of the Vittoriano rises the bronze monument of the king seated astride a horse: it is so huge that, when the works were completed, a banquet was held inside the horses stomach! The Vittoriano is 81 meters high and the chariots at its summit are visible from most of Rome. The construction of the edifice caused much controversy among art critics, so much so that writers and journalists gave it names like “the wedding cake” or “the typewriter”. On the long side of the piazza, Palazzo Venezia, with its imposing facade, was initially the headquarters for popes but during the fascist era, Mussolini used it as the regime's main palace, with its balcony, sadly famous for being the place from which war was announced
Trinità dei Monti The Chiesa di Trinità dei Monti is perhaps better known for its location than for the works inside it. This little jewel has evolved with the centuries to become one of the most famous post cards of the Eternal City. It stands atop the Spanish Steps, overlooking the Piazza di Spagna forming a backdrop that cannot be ignored. And yet, until the early 1500s, the church site was an enormous vineyard donated by King Charles VIII of France to an order of monks. From the 16th century on, the entire area around the Trinità dei Monti had long been under French influence; in the 19th century, this influence expanded somewhat to include the Villa Medici and the French Academy. The French provided the funds for the celebrated Spanish Steps, which were built some time around 1725 by Francesco De Sanctis. Their purpose was to celebrate the peace between France and Spain by linking the Piazza di Spagna (so called because of a road leading to the Bourbon Spanish Embassy) to the French church. In addition, of the two clocks on the façade, one shows Rome time, the other Paris time; mass is celebrated in the church in the French. The first part of the church was built in the Gothic style in the early decades of the 1500s; the place of worship was consecrated in 1585 by Pope Sixtus V. Afterwards, in the 16th century, the Gothic building was enlarged, and the famous façade with two symmetrical bell towers was built. The design was by Giacomo Della Porta and Domenico Fontana. The latter also created the stair and ramps that lead to the church entrance. In the late 18th century, Pope Pius VI placed the Salustiano Obelisk in front of the Trinità dei Monti. This was the last large obelisk to be erected by the Roman Papacy from those that had been built in Roman times to imitate Egyptian obelisks. On the interior, the beautiful Deposition of Christ and the entire Mannerist-style fresco cycle in one of the first chapels are the work of Daniele da Volterra, a student of Michelangelo, who after the master's death got the nickname “braghettone”(“Breeches-Maker”). He was charged with the task of covering the nudity in the Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel with trousers.
24
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Trinità dei Monti
3 Piazza della Trinità dei Monti
24
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Trinità dei Monti The Chiesa di Trinità dei Monti is perhaps better known for its location than for the works inside it. This little jewel has evolved with the centuries to become one of the most famous post cards of the Eternal City. It stands atop the Spanish Steps, overlooking the Piazza di Spagna forming a backdrop that cannot be ignored. And yet, until the early 1500s, the church site was an enormous vineyard donated by King Charles VIII of France to an order of monks. From the 16th century on, the entire area around the Trinità dei Monti had long been under French influence; in the 19th century, this influence expanded somewhat to include the Villa Medici and the French Academy. The French provided the funds for the celebrated Spanish Steps, which were built some time around 1725 by Francesco De Sanctis. Their purpose was to celebrate the peace between France and Spain by linking the Piazza di Spagna (so called because of a road leading to the Bourbon Spanish Embassy) to the French church. In addition, of the two clocks on the façade, one shows Rome time, the other Paris time; mass is celebrated in the church in the French. The first part of the church was built in the Gothic style in the early decades of the 1500s; the place of worship was consecrated in 1585 by Pope Sixtus V. Afterwards, in the 16th century, the Gothic building was enlarged, and the famous façade with two symmetrical bell towers was built. The design was by Giacomo Della Porta and Domenico Fontana. The latter also created the stair and ramps that lead to the church entrance. In the late 18th century, Pope Pius VI placed the Salustiano Obelisk in front of the Trinità dei Monti. This was the last large obelisk to be erected by the Roman Papacy from those that had been built in Roman times to imitate Egyptian obelisks. On the interior, the beautiful Deposition of Christ and the entire Mannerist-style fresco cycle in one of the first chapels are the work of Daniele da Volterra, a student of Michelangelo, who after the master's death got the nickname “braghettone”(“Breeches-Maker”). He was charged with the task of covering the nudity in the Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel with trousers.
The Roman Forum was the pulsing heart of Rome, the city’s main piazza where citizens of every social level met to exchange opinions, do business, buy in the markets and renew their strength over a tasty dish and a cup of good wine. An enormous crowd gathered there every day. Walking through the Forum one might meet rich merchants in precious clothes and sandals; or barefoot serving girls carrying baskets full of produce; reclining Roman nobles on a litter carried by slaves or sellers yelling full voiced to attract the customers. There was an overwhelming mix of colors, smells and merchandise for sale, of thousands of different faces from all parts of the world as it was known then. Rome was a cosmopolitan city, filled with people from Africa, Europe and the Middle East. Along its streets one could go from one extreme to another; from the smiles of the Roman women to the prostitutes on the street corners, from the perfume of temple incense to the pungent smells of cooking food, from the gold of the monuments to the vagabonds lining the road. The Roman Forum is situated in the area between Piazza Venezia and the Colosseum is one of the most important archaeological sites in the world. Three thousand years ago, this valley between Campidoglio and the Quirinal, which was to become the future social and political centre of one of the greatest empires of ancient times, was submerged in marshland. By an incredible invention of engineering, which was commissioned by the last two Etruscan kings, the so-called Cloaca Maxima, a canal that is still in function to this very day, allowed for the drainage of the land. The area soon began to develop and already at the end of the 7th century BC, it was home to many markets and a hive of social activity. Foro was the name that the Romans gave to the central square of the urban settlement and we must try to imagine this busy, crowded place as the pulsing centre of a modern city. Here the masses would flock to see the meetings of the orators, attend criminal trials and discuss internal politics or the latest military campaigns, or quite simply to comment on the games or running races (an activity that the Romans particularly enjoyed). In the area around the Forum, the city was also home to markets, shops and taverns. You could also find the typical Termopolia, which were the ancient equivalent of today's fast food restaurants. In short, the Forum was the heart and soul of city life. It was in Caesar's time, when Rome has become the capital of a vast empire, that the Forum became a place for celebrations and in the Imperial era it was the symbol of the Empire. The most incredible panoramic view of the entire Forum complex can be seen from the magnificent terraces of Campidoglio. Here you can observe the imposing ruins of Basilica Emilia, the only remaining Republican basilica, or the Curia, which was once the seat of the Senate. Nearby you will also note three trees, a vine, fig and olive tree, cited by Pliny the Elder, which were replanted in recent times. Starting from the Arch of Septimius Severus, the pathway winds through the most unique place in the world and passes beside the imposing Basilica di Massenzio, one of the most magnificent buildings of Imperial Rome, and ends near the Arch of Titus, where you will get a glimpse of the unmistakable Colosseum. During the Middle Ages, the Forum fell into a state of ruin and was abandoned. Its monuments were often used to build medieval fortifications and at times were even completely dismantled and their materials used elsewhere. In those times, the area was used for cultivation and grazing and it took on the name of 'Campo Vaccino', or 'cattle field'. It was only in the eighteenth century that the Forum was rediscovered and finally the definitive process of the recovery of the ancient ruins began, bringing this long-forgotten and barbarically plundered historic patrimony back to life.
110
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Forum Romanum
5/6 Via della Salara Vecchia
110
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
The Roman Forum was the pulsing heart of Rome, the city’s main piazza where citizens of every social level met to exchange opinions, do business, buy in the markets and renew their strength over a tasty dish and a cup of good wine. An enormous crowd gathered there every day. Walking through the Forum one might meet rich merchants in precious clothes and sandals; or barefoot serving girls carrying baskets full of produce; reclining Roman nobles on a litter carried by slaves or sellers yelling full voiced to attract the customers. There was an overwhelming mix of colors, smells and merchandise for sale, of thousands of different faces from all parts of the world as it was known then. Rome was a cosmopolitan city, filled with people from Africa, Europe and the Middle East. Along its streets one could go from one extreme to another; from the smiles of the Roman women to the prostitutes on the street corners, from the perfume of temple incense to the pungent smells of cooking food, from the gold of the monuments to the vagabonds lining the road. The Roman Forum is situated in the area between Piazza Venezia and the Colosseum is one of the most important archaeological sites in the world. Three thousand years ago, this valley between Campidoglio and the Quirinal, which was to become the future social and political centre of one of the greatest empires of ancient times, was submerged in marshland. By an incredible invention of engineering, which was commissioned by the last two Etruscan kings, the so-called Cloaca Maxima, a canal that is still in function to this very day, allowed for the drainage of the land. The area soon began to develop and already at the end of the 7th century BC, it was home to many markets and a hive of social activity. Foro was the name that the Romans gave to the central square of the urban settlement and we must try to imagine this busy, crowded place as the pulsing centre of a modern city. Here the masses would flock to see the meetings of the orators, attend criminal trials and discuss internal politics or the latest military campaigns, or quite simply to comment on the games or running races (an activity that the Romans particularly enjoyed). In the area around the Forum, the city was also home to markets, shops and taverns. You could also find the typical Termopolia, which were the ancient equivalent of today's fast food restaurants. In short, the Forum was the heart and soul of city life. It was in Caesar's time, when Rome has become the capital of a vast empire, that the Forum became a place for celebrations and in the Imperial era it was the symbol of the Empire. The most incredible panoramic view of the entire Forum complex can be seen from the magnificent terraces of Campidoglio. Here you can observe the imposing ruins of Basilica Emilia, the only remaining Republican basilica, or the Curia, which was once the seat of the Senate. Nearby you will also note three trees, a vine, fig and olive tree, cited by Pliny the Elder, which were replanted in recent times. Starting from the Arch of Septimius Severus, the pathway winds through the most unique place in the world and passes beside the imposing Basilica di Massenzio, one of the most magnificent buildings of Imperial Rome, and ends near the Arch of Titus, where you will get a glimpse of the unmistakable Colosseum. During the Middle Ages, the Forum fell into a state of ruin and was abandoned. Its monuments were often used to build medieval fortifications and at times were even completely dismantled and their materials used elsewhere. In those times, the area was used for cultivation and grazing and it took on the name of 'Campo Vaccino', or 'cattle field'. It was only in the eighteenth century that the Forum was rediscovered and finally the definitive process of the recovery of the ancient ruins began, bringing this long-forgotten and barbarically plundered historic patrimony back to life.
Arch of Constantine The Arch of Constantine is the most imposing of all the triumphal arches in Rome. It was ordered by the Senate to recall the victory of Constantine over Maxentius. Like the Arch of Septimius Severus, it has three openings and is along the street that celebrated all triumphs. It's completely covered with scenes that exalt emperor Constantine as reformer of the State, with some of the more glorious episodes of the Roman Empire. But the peculiarity of the decorations of the arch are in the fact that the statues and reliefs that cover it were re-used from older monuments, creating a sort of puzzle of objects from different eras. Maybe this was due to the cost and scarcity of skilled laborers or perhaps to the fact that almost all the artists were moving to Constantinople, the new capital of the Empire. Then again, it may have been a conscious choice: the images had to illustrate the victories and power of Rome's new master through a visual language that the people were already familiar with so as to easily connect Constantine's reign with those of the most beloved emperors of the past. Naturally, the faces on the sculptures and reliefs of the preceding emperors were changed to that of Constantine! Since then, for similar reasons, it became normal to reuse decorations and elements from older buildings to embellish new constructions and in particular, churches.
20
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Arch of Constantine
20
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Arch of Constantine The Arch of Constantine is the most imposing of all the triumphal arches in Rome. It was ordered by the Senate to recall the victory of Constantine over Maxentius. Like the Arch of Septimius Severus, it has three openings and is along the street that celebrated all triumphs. It's completely covered with scenes that exalt emperor Constantine as reformer of the State, with some of the more glorious episodes of the Roman Empire. But the peculiarity of the decorations of the arch are in the fact that the statues and reliefs that cover it were re-used from older monuments, creating a sort of puzzle of objects from different eras. Maybe this was due to the cost and scarcity of skilled laborers or perhaps to the fact that almost all the artists were moving to Constantinople, the new capital of the Empire. Then again, it may have been a conscious choice: the images had to illustrate the victories and power of Rome's new master through a visual language that the people were already familiar with so as to easily connect Constantine's reign with those of the most beloved emperors of the past. Naturally, the faces on the sculptures and reliefs of the preceding emperors were changed to that of Constantine! Since then, for similar reasons, it became normal to reuse decorations and elements from older buildings to embellish new constructions and in particular, churches.
Roman Roads: Ancient Via Appia The road was wide enough to allow vehicles travelling in opposite directions to pass; the surface, paved with basalt and bordered with sidewalks of pounded earth, was about 13 feet wide (the statutory width for main routes at the time when the road was built). Every nine or ten miles the traveller could make a stop, change horses and eat a meal. The "Via Appia Antica" was the first Roman road to be named after the magistrate who built it. Consequently Appius Claudius Caecus, who also provided the Romans with their first aqueduct, is one of the city's earliest known public figures. The highway, called “the queen of the roads” because of its length, age and straightness, was begun in 312 BC. It was built to link Rome with Capua, the capital of Campania, at a time the two cities were forming a joint political administration. Later the road was extended to reach Brindisi, the “port if the East”. It took only five days to reach Capua, and thirteen or fourteen days to cover its total length of 330 miles. The Appian Way started at the Porta Capena, near the rounded end of the Circus Maximus. Today the best preserved section is immediately outside the wall: this is also the only tract that gives some idea of the villages, tombs, aqueducts and, in Imperial times, the mansions of the rich. In the Middle Ages, the population declined and it fell into the hand of the Caetani, an illustrious family from Gaeta, on the coast south of Rome. In the 16th century interest in the side was renewed: Raphael, Pirro Ligorio and Michelangelo planned to restore it. However, it was Pius VI in the 18th century and, later, the archeologists of the 19th century, who undertook its repair. Roman Roads: Roadside Tombs Since the earliest times the common custom was to bury the dead outside the pomerium, the sacred walls of the city. The first few miles of Roman roads were therefore usually flanked by necropolises, distinguished by social status and diversity of funeral rites. Indeed burial and cremation were practiced concurrently, one or the other prevailing according to the fashion. Under the Republic cremation was prevalent so they constructed columbariums (buildings housing thousands of funerary urns) and altars with the ashes of the ashes of the deceased. Conversely, in the Imperial times the practice of burial became more common, resulting in the spread of catacombs. The use of underground cemeteries was a direct response to the practice of burial, since interment required more space than cremations. From the 4th century the catacombs became almost exclusively Christian, following the conversion of the Roman people.
Inizio Running Appia antica
227-245 Via Appia Antica
Roman Roads: Ancient Via Appia The road was wide enough to allow vehicles travelling in opposite directions to pass; the surface, paved with basalt and bordered with sidewalks of pounded earth, was about 13 feet wide (the statutory width for main routes at the time when the road was built). Every nine or ten miles the traveller could make a stop, change horses and eat a meal. The "Via Appia Antica" was the first Roman road to be named after the magistrate who built it. Consequently Appius Claudius Caecus, who also provided the Romans with their first aqueduct, is one of the city's earliest known public figures. The highway, called “the queen of the roads” because of its length, age and straightness, was begun in 312 BC. It was built to link Rome with Capua, the capital of Campania, at a time the two cities were forming a joint political administration. Later the road was extended to reach Brindisi, the “port if the East”. It took only five days to reach Capua, and thirteen or fourteen days to cover its total length of 330 miles. The Appian Way started at the Porta Capena, near the rounded end of the Circus Maximus. Today the best preserved section is immediately outside the wall: this is also the only tract that gives some idea of the villages, tombs, aqueducts and, in Imperial times, the mansions of the rich. In the Middle Ages, the population declined and it fell into the hand of the Caetani, an illustrious family from Gaeta, on the coast south of Rome. In the 16th century interest in the side was renewed: Raphael, Pirro Ligorio and Michelangelo planned to restore it. However, it was Pius VI in the 18th century and, later, the archeologists of the 19th century, who undertook its repair. Roman Roads: Roadside Tombs Since the earliest times the common custom was to bury the dead outside the pomerium, the sacred walls of the city. The first few miles of Roman roads were therefore usually flanked by necropolises, distinguished by social status and diversity of funeral rites. Indeed burial and cremation were practiced concurrently, one or the other prevailing according to the fashion. Under the Republic cremation was prevalent so they constructed columbariums (buildings housing thousands of funerary urns) and altars with the ashes of the ashes of the deceased. Conversely, in the Imperial times the practice of burial became more common, resulting in the spread of catacombs. The use of underground cemeteries was a direct response to the practice of burial, since interment required more space than cremations. From the 4th century the catacombs became almost exclusively Christian, following the conversion of the Roman people.
Le Guide ai Quartieri
Esquilino is one of the central neighborhoods of Rome. It includes Termini station and piazza Vittorio Emanuele. Many tourists pick b&b’s and hotels in this neighborhood for its central position. The neighborhood is very congested with cars and people. It features beautiful buildings such as Santa Maria Maggiore’s basilica. Great position. Due to Esquilino’s position, public transportation allows you to reach quickly both the historical downtown and other points of interest located in every part of Rome. Santa Maria Maggiore’s basilica. Don’t miss out on the chance to visit the papal Church dedicated to the Holy Mary that features magnificent works of art. If you happen to be in Rome on august 5th you may want to stop by to witness the commemoration of the miracle of the snow that fell in 358 a.c.. According to the legend, Pope Liberio had a dream of the Holy Mary that told him to build a Church dedicated to Her.   Esquilino Esquilino is one of the central neighborhoods of Rome. It includes Termini station and piazza Vittorio Emanuele. Many tourists pick b&b’s and hotels in this neighborhood for its central position. The neighborhood is very congested with cars and people. It features beautiful buildings such as Santa Maria Maggiore’s basilica. Chances  Michelangelo’s Moses Great position. Due to Esquilino’s position, public transportation allows you to reach quickly both the historical downtown and other points of interest located in every part of Rome. Santa Maria Maggiore’s basilica. Don’t miss out on the chance to visit the papal Church dedicated to the Holy Mary that features magnificent works of art. If you happen to be in Rome on august 5th you may want to stop by to witness the commemoration of the miracle of the snow that fell in 358 a.c.. According to the legend, Pope Liberio had a dream of the Holy Mary that told him to build a Church dedicated to Her. Chiesa di San Pietro in Vincoli. There are at least two good reasons to visit the Church of Piazza San Pietro in Vincoli: the Michelangelo’s Moses and the chains that held St. Peter while he was imprisoned at Mamertino prison.. Museo Nazionale romano. Whoever visits Rome usually tends to underestimate the Museo nazionale romano (Roman National museum)  that features a long list of sculptures, II century greek bronzes, precious frescos from 10 b.c., coins and jewels, and Grottarossa’s mummy.. The cumulative ticket includes also Palazzo Massimo, Palazzo Altemps, Crypta Balbi and Terme di Diocleziano. Ice Cream. Generations of Romans have been to the Palazzo del Freddo (Cold Palace) for ice cream. Located in in via Principe Eugenio 65 it’s been there since 1928 courtesy of Giovanni Fassi, the founder. Besides the regular cones and cups, you can try the “sanpietrino”, a cake whose shape resembles the classic cobblestone that it’s used to pave many Rome’s roads. It’s a a square-shaped cake made with custard, zabaglione, chocolate, coffee or nuts, covered with a chocolate glaze.. Sicilian Pastry. Even though it’s not really a roman tradition, it’s worth to try the sicilian cannoli with ricotta cheese at Dagnino Pastry in Galleria Esedra, Via V. Emanuele Orlando 75. You can also try the cassata, brioche with ricotta cheese or ice cream, and the arancini. The place is a little pricey but, since you can eat while standing or have it to go, it’s worth to pay a visit.   Esquilino Esquilino is one of the central neighborhoods of Rome. It includes Termini station and piazza Vittorio Emanuele. Many tourists pick b&b’s and hotels in this neighborhood for its central position. The neighborhood is very congested with cars and people. It features beautiful buildings such as Santa Maria Maggiore’s basilica. Chances  Michelangelo’s Moses Great position. Due to Esquilino’s position, public transportation allows you to reach quickly both the historical downtown and other points of interest located in every part of Rome. Santa Maria Maggiore’s basilica. Don’t miss out on the chance to visit the papal Church dedicated to the Holy Mary that features magnificent works of art. If you happen to be in Rome on august 5th you may want to stop by to witness the commemoration of the miracle of the snow that fell in 358 a.c.. According to the legend, Pope Liberio had a dream of the Holy Mary that told him to build a Church dedicated to Her. Chiesa di San Pietro in Vincoli. There are at least two good reasons to visit the Church of Piazza San Pietro in Vincoli: the Michelangelo’s Moses and the chains that held St. Peter while he was imprisoned at Mamertino prison.. Museo Nazionale romano. Whoever visits Rome usually tends to underestimate the Museo nazionale romano (Roman National museum)  that features a long list of sculptures, II century greek bronzes, precious frescos from 10 b.c., coins and jewels, and Grottarossa’s mummy.. The cumulative ticket includes also Palazzo Massimo, Palazzo Altemps, Crypta Balbi and Terme di Diocleziano. Watch out! Security. According to a poll by Censis institute of research from May 2015, Romans selected Esquilino as the least safe neighborhood of the city. 13.8& of the population thought so. In the neighborohood 67.5% selected Termini station as the most dangerous spot. 20.4% picked Piazza Vittorio. 18.6% picked Tiburtina station and 11.7% Ostiense station.. Despite its reputation, we romans like to hang out in this neighborhood for many reasons such as the art spots, good ice cream, ethnic food and many other reasons. Food  Palazzo del freddo Ice Cream. Generations of Romans have been to the Palazzo del Freddo (Cold Palace) for ice cream. Located in in via Principe Eugenio 65 it’s been there since 1928 courtesy of Giovanni Fassi, the founder. Besides the regular cones and cups, you can try the “sanpietrino”, a cake whose shape resembles the classic cobblestone that it’s used to pave many Rome’s roads. It’s a a square-shaped cake made with custard, zabaglione, chocolate, coffee or nuts, covered with a chocolate glaze.. Sicilian Pastry. Even though it’s not really a roman tradition, it’s worth to try the sicilian cannoli with ricotta cheese at Dagnino Pastry in Galleria Esedra, Via V. Emanuele Orlando 75. You can also try the cassata, brioche with ricotta cheese or ice cream, and the arancini. The place is a little pricey but, since you can eat while standing or have it to go, it’s worth to pay a visit. On the go. Rione Esquilino has a lot to offer to whoever visits Rome and likes to eat on the go. High up in the bakery charts is Panella, located in Via Merulana 54. The place offers an enormous choice of bread, pizza, and sweets. Over the last few years Panella has offered great aperitivi (happy hour) becoming now a must for evening walks. Go there between 6:30 pm and 10 pm for extravagant foods. A solid alternative is Pietro Roscioli’s bakery, great choice as traditional bakery as well as cafeteria..Bread, squared pizza, and pasta are the specialties of the house. Finally, in Via Firenze there’s the Antico Forno Firenze that makes great sandwiches with veggies, meat, coldcuts, cheese and whatever you like. It also bakes pizza, sweets and other baked delicatessen. Ethnic market. Esquilino is the international borough of Rome, a sort of roman chinatown with a multicultural spin to it. Near Piazza Vittorio Emanuele from Monday to Saturdays you will find the covered local market, divided in two parts: one for foods, the other for clothing and textiles. From 7 am to 2 pm you can purchase foods and spices from all over the world: China, India, Bangladesh, Senegal, Romania. The stands are in the ex barracks Sani. You can access from Via Principe Amedeo or via Mamiani or via Turati or via Lamarmora. If your hotel is nearby, it’s worth to pay a visit. Art   Esquilino Esquilino is one of the central neighborhoods of Rome. It includes Termini station and piazza Vittorio Emanuele. Many tourists pick b&b’s and hotels in this neighborhood for its central position. The neighborhood is very congested with cars and people. It features beautiful buildings such as Santa Maria Maggiore’s basilica. Chances  Michelangelo’s Moses Great position. Due to Esquilino’s position, public transportation allows you to reach quickly both the historical downtown and other points of interest located in every part of Rome. Santa Maria Maggiore’s basilica. Don’t miss out on the chance to visit the papal Church dedicated to the Holy Mary that features magnificent works of art. If you happen to be in Rome on august 5th you may want to stop by to witness the commemoration of the miracle of the snow that fell in 358 a.c.. According to the legend, Pope Liberio had a dream of the Holy Mary that told him to build a Church dedicated to Her. Chiesa di San Pietro in Vincoli. There are at least two good reasons to visit the Church of Piazza San Pietro in Vincoli: the Michelangelo’s Moses and the chains that held St. Peter while he was imprisoned at Mamertino prison.. Museo Nazionale romano. Whoever visits Rome usually tends to underestimate the Museo nazionale romano (Roman National museum)  that features a long list of sculptures, II century greek bronzes, precious frescos from 10 b.c., coins and jewels, and Grottarossa’s mummy.. The cumulative ticket includes also Palazzo Massimo, Palazzo Altemps, Crypta Balbi and Terme di Diocleziano. Watch out! Security. According to a poll by Censis institute of research from May 2015, Romans selected Esquilino as the least safe neighborhood of the city. 13.8& of the population thought so. In the neighborohood 67.5% selected Termini station as the most dangerous spot. 20.4% picked Piazza Vittorio. 18.6% picked Tiburtina station and 11.7% Ostiense station.. Despite its reputation, we romans like to hang out in this neighborhood for many reasons such as the art spots, good ice cream, ethnic food and many other reasons. Food  Palazzo del freddo Ice Cream. Generations of Romans have been to the Palazzo del Freddo (Cold Palace) for ice cream. Located in in via Principe Eugenio 65 it’s been there since 1928 courtesy of Giovanni Fassi, the founder. Besides the regular cones and cups, you can try the “sanpietrino”, a cake whose shape resembles the classic cobblestone that it’s used to pave many Rome’s roads. It’s a a square-shaped cake made with custard, zabaglione, chocolate, coffee or nuts, covered with a chocolate glaze.. Sicilian Pastry. Even though it’s not really a roman tradition, it’s worth to try the sicilian cannoli with ricotta cheese at Dagnino Pastry in Galleria Esedra, Via V. Emanuele Orlando 75. You can also try the cassata, brioche with ricotta cheese or ice cream, and the arancini. The place is a little pricey but, since you can eat while standing or have it to go, it’s worth to pay a visit. On the go. Rione Esquilino has a lot to offer to whoever visits Rome and likes to eat on the go. High up in the bakery charts is Panella, located in Via Merulana 54. The place offers an enormous choice of bread, pizza, and sweets. Over the last few years Panella has offered great aperitivi (happy hour) becoming now a must for evening walks. Go there between 6:30 pm and 10 pm for extravagant foods. A solid alternative is Pietro Roscioli’s bakery, great choice as traditional bakery as well as cafeteria..Bread, squared pizza, and pasta are the specialties of the house. Finally, in Via Firenze there’s the Antico Forno Firenze that makes great sandwiches with veggies, meat, coldcuts, cheese and whatever you like. It also bakes pizza, sweets and other baked delicatessen.  Local market  Ethnical market Ethnic market. Esquilino is the international borough of Rome, a sort of roman chinatown with a multicultural spin to it. Near Piazza Vittorio Emanuele from Monday to Saturdays you will find the covered local market, divided in two parts: one for foods, the other for clothing and textiles. From 7 am to 2 pm you can purchase foods and spices from all over the world: China, India, Bangladesh, Senegal, Romania. The stands are in the ex barracks Sani. You can access from Via Principe Amedeo or via Mamiani or via Turati or via Lamarmora. If your hotel is nearby, it’s worth to pay a visit. Art  Palazzo delle Esposizioni Art exhibits. The Palazzo delle Esposizioni,  in via Nazionale 194, hosts interesting exhibits, film festivals, concerts and art workshops. Spread out on three floors, a total area of 10 thousand squared meters, it features a movie theater, areas for children, a cafeteria and a bookstore. From Monday to Friday the restaurant with the glass ceiling, serves a buffet lunch for 16 Euros. Shows Opera. Close to Termini station there’s the Teatro dell’Opera di Roma, opened in 1880 and dedicated to opera and balet. The venue is also known as Teatro Costanzi,named after its creator Domenico  Costanzi. If you wish to attend a show, we recommend you to purchase your ticket way ahead.. Theatre. For theatre lovers, located in Via Guglielmo Pepe 45 there’s the Ambra Jovinelli. Opened in 1909, it hosts mostly comedies nowadays.  How to get there All the roads take you to Termini Station. Even though Tiburtina station is becoming more and more importan, Termini Station remains a landmark for most romans.. Subway and bus. You can get there with both the A line and B line and with many buses that run from Piazza dei Cinquecento.
6
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Esquilino
6
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Esquilino is one of the central neighborhoods of Rome. It includes Termini station and piazza Vittorio Emanuele. Many tourists pick b&b’s and hotels in this neighborhood for its central position. The neighborhood is very congested with cars and people. It features beautiful buildings such as Santa Maria Maggiore’s basilica. Great position. Due to Esquilino’s position, public transportation allows you to reach quickly both the historical downtown and other points of interest located in every part of Rome. Santa Maria Maggiore’s basilica. Don’t miss out on the chance to visit the papal Church dedicated to the Holy Mary that features magnificent works of art. If you happen to be in Rome on august 5th you may want to stop by to witness the commemoration of the miracle of the snow that fell in 358 a.c.. According to the legend, Pope Liberio had a dream of the Holy Mary that told him to build a Church dedicated to Her.   Esquilino Esquilino is one of the central neighborhoods of Rome. It includes Termini station and piazza Vittorio Emanuele. Many tourists pick b&b’s and hotels in this neighborhood for its central position. The neighborhood is very congested with cars and people. It features beautiful buildings such as Santa Maria Maggiore’s basilica. Chances  Michelangelo’s Moses Great position. Due to Esquilino’s position, public transportation allows you to reach quickly both the historical downtown and other points of interest located in every part of Rome. Santa Maria Maggiore’s basilica. Don’t miss out on the chance to visit the papal Church dedicated to the Holy Mary that features magnificent works of art. If you happen to be in Rome on august 5th you may want to stop by to witness the commemoration of the miracle of the snow that fell in 358 a.c.. According to the legend, Pope Liberio had a dream of the Holy Mary that told him to build a Church dedicated to Her. Chiesa di San Pietro in Vincoli. There are at least two good reasons to visit the Church of Piazza San Pietro in Vincoli: the Michelangelo’s Moses and the chains that held St. Peter while he was imprisoned at Mamertino prison.. Museo Nazionale romano. Whoever visits Rome usually tends to underestimate the Museo nazionale romano (Roman National museum)  that features a long list of sculptures, II century greek bronzes, precious frescos from 10 b.c., coins and jewels, and Grottarossa’s mummy.. The cumulative ticket includes also Palazzo Massimo, Palazzo Altemps, Crypta Balbi and Terme di Diocleziano. Ice Cream. Generations of Romans have been to the Palazzo del Freddo (Cold Palace) for ice cream. Located in in via Principe Eugenio 65 it’s been there since 1928 courtesy of Giovanni Fassi, the founder. Besides the regular cones and cups, you can try the “sanpietrino”, a cake whose shape resembles the classic cobblestone that it’s used to pave many Rome’s roads. It’s a a square-shaped cake made with custard, zabaglione, chocolate, coffee or nuts, covered with a chocolate glaze.. Sicilian Pastry. Even though it’s not really a roman tradition, it’s worth to try the sicilian cannoli with ricotta cheese at Dagnino Pastry in Galleria Esedra, Via V. Emanuele Orlando 75. You can also try the cassata, brioche with ricotta cheese or ice cream, and the arancini. The place is a little pricey but, since you can eat while standing or have it to go, it’s worth to pay a visit.   Esquilino Esquilino is one of the central neighborhoods of Rome. It includes Termini station and piazza Vittorio Emanuele. Many tourists pick b&b’s and hotels in this neighborhood for its central position. The neighborhood is very congested with cars and people. It features beautiful buildings such as Santa Maria Maggiore’s basilica. Chances  Michelangelo’s Moses Great position. Due to Esquilino’s position, public transportation allows you to reach quickly both the historical downtown and other points of interest located in every part of Rome. Santa Maria Maggiore’s basilica. Don’t miss out on the chance to visit the papal Church dedicated to the Holy Mary that features magnificent works of art. If you happen to be in Rome on august 5th you may want to stop by to witness the commemoration of the miracle of the snow that fell in 358 a.c.. According to the legend, Pope Liberio had a dream of the Holy Mary that told him to build a Church dedicated to Her. Chiesa di San Pietro in Vincoli. There are at least two good reasons to visit the Church of Piazza San Pietro in Vincoli: the Michelangelo’s Moses and the chains that held St. Peter while he was imprisoned at Mamertino prison.. Museo Nazionale romano. Whoever visits Rome usually tends to underestimate the Museo nazionale romano (Roman National museum)  that features a long list of sculptures, II century greek bronzes, precious frescos from 10 b.c., coins and jewels, and Grottarossa’s mummy.. The cumulative ticket includes also Palazzo Massimo, Palazzo Altemps, Crypta Balbi and Terme di Diocleziano. Watch out! Security. According to a poll by Censis institute of research from May 2015, Romans selected Esquilino as the least safe neighborhood of the city. 13.8& of the population thought so. In the neighborohood 67.5% selected Termini station as the most dangerous spot. 20.4% picked Piazza Vittorio. 18.6% picked Tiburtina station and 11.7% Ostiense station.. Despite its reputation, we romans like to hang out in this neighborhood for many reasons such as the art spots, good ice cream, ethnic food and many other reasons. Food  Palazzo del freddo Ice Cream. Generations of Romans have been to the Palazzo del Freddo (Cold Palace) for ice cream. Located in in via Principe Eugenio 65 it’s been there since 1928 courtesy of Giovanni Fassi, the founder. Besides the regular cones and cups, you can try the “sanpietrino”, a cake whose shape resembles the classic cobblestone that it’s used to pave many Rome’s roads. It’s a a square-shaped cake made with custard, zabaglione, chocolate, coffee or nuts, covered with a chocolate glaze.. Sicilian Pastry. Even though it’s not really a roman tradition, it’s worth to try the sicilian cannoli with ricotta cheese at Dagnino Pastry in Galleria Esedra, Via V. Emanuele Orlando 75. You can also try the cassata, brioche with ricotta cheese or ice cream, and the arancini. The place is a little pricey but, since you can eat while standing or have it to go, it’s worth to pay a visit. On the go. Rione Esquilino has a lot to offer to whoever visits Rome and likes to eat on the go. High up in the bakery charts is Panella, located in Via Merulana 54. The place offers an enormous choice of bread, pizza, and sweets. Over the last few years Panella has offered great aperitivi (happy hour) becoming now a must for evening walks. Go there between 6:30 pm and 10 pm for extravagant foods. A solid alternative is Pietro Roscioli’s bakery, great choice as traditional bakery as well as cafeteria..Bread, squared pizza, and pasta are the specialties of the house. Finally, in Via Firenze there’s the Antico Forno Firenze that makes great sandwiches with veggies, meat, coldcuts, cheese and whatever you like. It also bakes pizza, sweets and other baked delicatessen. Ethnic market. Esquilino is the international borough of Rome, a sort of roman chinatown with a multicultural spin to it. Near Piazza Vittorio Emanuele from Monday to Saturdays you will find the covered local market, divided in two parts: one for foods, the other for clothing and textiles. From 7 am to 2 pm you can purchase foods and spices from all over the world: China, India, Bangladesh, Senegal, Romania. The stands are in the ex barracks Sani. You can access from Via Principe Amedeo or via Mamiani or via Turati or via Lamarmora. If your hotel is nearby, it’s worth to pay a visit. Art   Esquilino Esquilino is one of the central neighborhoods of Rome. It includes Termini station and piazza Vittorio Emanuele. Many tourists pick b&b’s and hotels in this neighborhood for its central position. The neighborhood is very congested with cars and people. It features beautiful buildings such as Santa Maria Maggiore’s basilica. Chances  Michelangelo’s Moses Great position. Due to Esquilino’s position, public transportation allows you to reach quickly both the historical downtown and other points of interest located in every part of Rome. Santa Maria Maggiore’s basilica. Don’t miss out on the chance to visit the papal Church dedicated to the Holy Mary that features magnificent works of art. If you happen to be in Rome on august 5th you may want to stop by to witness the commemoration of the miracle of the snow that fell in 358 a.c.. According to the legend, Pope Liberio had a dream of the Holy Mary that told him to build a Church dedicated to Her. Chiesa di San Pietro in Vincoli. There are at least two good reasons to visit the Church of Piazza San Pietro in Vincoli: the Michelangelo’s Moses and the chains that held St. Peter while he was imprisoned at Mamertino prison.. Museo Nazionale romano. Whoever visits Rome usually tends to underestimate the Museo nazionale romano (Roman National museum)  that features a long list of sculptures, II century greek bronzes, precious frescos from 10 b.c., coins and jewels, and Grottarossa’s mummy.. The cumulative ticket includes also Palazzo Massimo, Palazzo Altemps, Crypta Balbi and Terme di Diocleziano. Watch out! Security. According to a poll by Censis institute of research from May 2015, Romans selected Esquilino as the least safe neighborhood of the city. 13.8& of the population thought so. In the neighborohood 67.5% selected Termini station as the most dangerous spot. 20.4% picked Piazza Vittorio. 18.6% picked Tiburtina station and 11.7% Ostiense station.. Despite its reputation, we romans like to hang out in this neighborhood for many reasons such as the art spots, good ice cream, ethnic food and many other reasons. Food  Palazzo del freddo Ice Cream. Generations of Romans have been to the Palazzo del Freddo (Cold Palace) for ice cream. Located in in via Principe Eugenio 65 it’s been there since 1928 courtesy of Giovanni Fassi, the founder. Besides the regular cones and cups, you can try the “sanpietrino”, a cake whose shape resembles the classic cobblestone that it’s used to pave many Rome’s roads. It’s a a square-shaped cake made with custard, zabaglione, chocolate, coffee or nuts, covered with a chocolate glaze.. Sicilian Pastry. Even though it’s not really a roman tradition, it’s worth to try the sicilian cannoli with ricotta cheese at Dagnino Pastry in Galleria Esedra, Via V. Emanuele Orlando 75. You can also try the cassata, brioche with ricotta cheese or ice cream, and the arancini. The place is a little pricey but, since you can eat while standing or have it to go, it’s worth to pay a visit. On the go. Rione Esquilino has a lot to offer to whoever visits Rome and likes to eat on the go. High up in the bakery charts is Panella, located in Via Merulana 54. The place offers an enormous choice of bread, pizza, and sweets. Over the last few years Panella has offered great aperitivi (happy hour) becoming now a must for evening walks. Go there between 6:30 pm and 10 pm for extravagant foods. A solid alternative is Pietro Roscioli’s bakery, great choice as traditional bakery as well as cafeteria..Bread, squared pizza, and pasta are the specialties of the house. Finally, in Via Firenze there’s the Antico Forno Firenze that makes great sandwiches with veggies, meat, coldcuts, cheese and whatever you like. It also bakes pizza, sweets and other baked delicatessen.  Local market  Ethnical market Ethnic market. Esquilino is the international borough of Rome, a sort of roman chinatown with a multicultural spin to it. Near Piazza Vittorio Emanuele from Monday to Saturdays you will find the covered local market, divided in two parts: one for foods, the other for clothing and textiles. From 7 am to 2 pm you can purchase foods and spices from all over the world: China, India, Bangladesh, Senegal, Romania. The stands are in the ex barracks Sani. You can access from Via Principe Amedeo or via Mamiani or via Turati or via Lamarmora. If your hotel is nearby, it’s worth to pay a visit. Art  Palazzo delle Esposizioni Art exhibits. The Palazzo delle Esposizioni,  in via Nazionale 194, hosts interesting exhibits, film festivals, concerts and art workshops. Spread out on three floors, a total area of 10 thousand squared meters, it features a movie theater, areas for children, a cafeteria and a bookstore. From Monday to Friday the restaurant with the glass ceiling, serves a buffet lunch for 16 Euros. Shows Opera. Close to Termini station there’s the Teatro dell’Opera di Roma, opened in 1880 and dedicated to opera and balet. The venue is also known as Teatro Costanzi,named after its creator Domenico  Costanzi. If you wish to attend a show, we recommend you to purchase your ticket way ahead.. Theatre. For theatre lovers, located in Via Guglielmo Pepe 45 there’s the Ambra Jovinelli. Opened in 1909, it hosts mostly comedies nowadays.  How to get there All the roads take you to Termini Station. Even though Tiburtina station is becoming more and more importan, Termini Station remains a landmark for most romans.. Subway and bus. You can get there with both the A line and B line and with many buses that run from Piazza dei Cinquecento.
A perfect day in Trastevere, Rome’s favourite neighbourhood You’ve thrown coins into the Trevi Fountain and marvelled at the Colosseum – what next? Take a trip across the Tiber river to Trastevere, a charming medieval neighbourhood with a fiery temperament. A stroll around Trastevere, a formerly working class district with a heady nightlife, will take you away from the crowds to the hidden corners of Rome. Morning: labyrinthine streets and glittering mosaics After an early morning at the Centro Storico's colourful Campo de' Fiori market, stroll three minutes to the Tiber and cross the river via the stone footbridge, Ponte Sisto, to reach Trastevere. Head towards Piazza di Santa Maria, the heart of this labyrinthine district; take Via del Moro, with its many shops and cafes, then divert into the quiet cobblestone side streets lined with crumbling buildings with faded paintwork. Plants and religious shrines brighten up the streets, washing is strung up between buildings, and graffiti covers the shutters of closed bars. This lovely neighbourhood square is dominated by 12th-century Basilica di Santa Maria.
436
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Trastevere
436
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
A perfect day in Trastevere, Rome’s favourite neighbourhood You’ve thrown coins into the Trevi Fountain and marvelled at the Colosseum – what next? Take a trip across the Tiber river to Trastevere, a charming medieval neighbourhood with a fiery temperament. A stroll around Trastevere, a formerly working class district with a heady nightlife, will take you away from the crowds to the hidden corners of Rome. Morning: labyrinthine streets and glittering mosaics After an early morning at the Centro Storico's colourful Campo de' Fiori market, stroll three minutes to the Tiber and cross the river via the stone footbridge, Ponte Sisto, to reach Trastevere. Head towards Piazza di Santa Maria, the heart of this labyrinthine district; take Via del Moro, with its many shops and cafes, then divert into the quiet cobblestone side streets lined with crumbling buildings with faded paintwork. Plants and religious shrines brighten up the streets, washing is strung up between buildings, and graffiti covers the shutters of closed bars. This lovely neighbourhood square is dominated by 12th-century Basilica di Santa Maria.
Vatican area
Things to do in Rome’s Borgo Neighborhood Welcome to Borgo, Rome’s 14th neighborhood! These cobblestone streets are laden with history and have been home to Pope Benedict XVI, world famous artist Raphael, the great Michelangelo Buonarroti, and countless others. The three main streets, or “borghi”, were named by Pope Pius IV in 1565. Borgo Pio (after himself), Borgo Angelico (after his birth name “Angelo”), and Borgo Vittorio (after the victory over Lepanto). Nowadays, this area is often graced with the presence of Cardinals, Swiss Guards, and even Pope Francis from time to time! This lively, little zone is nestled between Prati, Trastevere, the Tevere, Castel Sant’Angelo, and Vatican City, of course. The most evident border is marked by a tall, medieval wall. This covered corridor served as a hidden, fortified escape route from the Vatican to Castel Sant’Angelo. Pope Clement VII put it to use when he was forced to run for safety in 1527. Unfortunately, running in full Pope garb was not a simple task, so he was forced to take quick, tiny steps, hence the name of the wall: “Il Passetto,” or “little step. HOME FEATURES SEE ROME ATTRACTIONS NEIGHBOURHOODS OF ROME VISIT ROME WITH KIDS ROME UNDERGROUND INSIDER ACTIVITIES&TOURS COOKING CLASSES STREETS OF ROME WEEKEND GETAWAY FROM ROME ROMA PASS STAY BOOK YOUR HOTEL STAYING IN ROME BUDGET HOTELS LUGGAGE STORAGE IN ROME CAR RENTAL SERVICE MOVE TO ROME FIND YOUR AREA FIND YOUR APARTMENT WORK & STUDY IN ROME MOVING TO ROME ITALIAN LANGUAGE SCHOOLS STUDY ABROAD STUDENTS F.A.Q. MISCELLANEOUS HOT TOPICS FREE THINGS TO DO IN ROME BEST APPS FOR FOREIGNERS IN ROME INTERVIEWS A LIFE ROMANTIC EVENTS EVENTS CALENDAR EXHIBITIONS NIGHTLIFE & APERITIVO MUSIC EVENTS & CONCERTS PERFORMANCES / THEATRE CINEMA FESTIVALS & MOVIES FASHION SHOWS & EVENTS MARKETS AND WINE & FOOD EVENTS SPORT ROME SUMMER FESTIVALS CULTURE ART EXHIBITIONS PERFORMANCES / THEATRE MUSEUMS CONTEMPORARY ART GALLERIES ROME THROUGH THE ARTIST MUSIC & THEATRE MUSIC EVENTS & CONCERTS CLASSICAL MUSIC THE OPERA SCENE THEATRE GUIDE ROME SUMMER FESTIVALS ROCK & INDIE VENUES JAZZ & BLUES VENUES CINEMA ORIGINAL LANGUAGE MOVIES CINEPHILE CINEMA FESTIVALS & MOVIES LITERATURE BOOKSHOPS LIBRARIES BOOKS FOR ITALOPHILES FOOD RESTAURANTS BREAKFAST & BRUNCH BURGERS FOOD DELIVERY FOOD & WINE STORES INTERNATIONAL & ETHNIC FOOD GELATO PIZZA SEAFOOD VEGAN & VEGETARIAN NIGHTLIFE DRINKING IN ROME: BARS & CLUBS BEST BARS IN ROME BEST BARS FOR APERITIVO BEST CLUBS FOR DANCING BEST MIXOLOGY / COCKTAIL BARS SUMMER HANGOUTS BEST ROOFTOPS GAY ROME GUIDE IRISH PUBS WINE BARS LIFESTYLE SHOPPING SHOP ITALIAN SHOPS IN ROME BEST OF BOUTIQUES GUIDE VINTAGE SHOPS WELLNESS & BEAUTY HEALTH & BEAUTY HOTSPOTS DAY SPAS GUIDE YOGA & PILATES GYMS HAIR SALONS OUTDOOR POOLS HEALTH ENGLISH SPEAKING DOCTORS HOTELS PLAN YOUR TRIP COLOSSEUM TOURS VATICAN TOURS PRIVATE TOURS & DAY TRIPS LOCAL EXPERIENCES AIRPORT TRANSFERS TICKETS GUIDE TO ROME CUSTOM TRAVEL PLANNING CURRENT ISSUE ROMEING MAGAZINE ARCHIVE DISTRIBUTION SUBSCRIPTION MI.MAG ADVERTISE SERVICES CLASSIFIEDS BROWSE ADS PLACE AD VIEW CATEGORIES NEWSLETTER ROMEING MAGAZINE SUBSCRIPTION VISA APPLICATION AFFILIATE PROGRAM CONTACT US LOG IN   Restaurants in Prati-Flaminio, Features, Neighbourhoods of Rome6 December 2015 The Borgo District Of Rome by April Nicole The exhibition brings to Rome the pick of the Toulouse-Lautrec Collection at the Budapest Museum of Fine Arts Things to do in Rome’s Borgo Neighborhood Welcome to Borgo, Rome’s 14th neighborhood! These cobblestone streets are laden with history and have been home to Pope Benedict XVI, world famous artist Raphael, the great Michelangelo Buonarroti, and countless others. The three main streets, or “borghi”, were named by Pope Pius IV in 1565. Borgo Pio (after himself), Borgo Angelico (after his birth name “Angelo”), and Borgo Vittorio (after the victory over Lepanto). Nowadays, this area is often graced with the presence of Cardinals, Swiss Guards, and even Pope Francis from time to time! This lively, little zone is nestled between Prati, Trastevere, the Tevere, Castel Sant’Angelo, and Vatican City, of course. The most evident border is marked by a tall, medieval wall. This covered corridor served as a hidden, fortified escape route from the Vatican to Castel Sant’Angelo. Pope Clement VII put it to use when he was forced to run for safety in 1527. Unfortunately, running in full Pope garb was not a simple task, so he was forced to take quick, tiny steps, hence the name of the wall: “Il Passetto,” or “little step.”      Today, Borgo is filled with locals and tourists alike, and with the Jubilee Year kicking off on December 8th, the area is about to get even more lively!  Although tourist traps abound- (after all it’s the perfect place for visitors to stock up on souvenirs and relax after a Vatican visit) don’t let this deter you- there are some local haunts definitely worth checking out and we’ve got the inside scoop!
49
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Vatican City
49
lokalinvånare rekommenderar
Things to do in Rome’s Borgo Neighborhood Welcome to Borgo, Rome’s 14th neighborhood! These cobblestone streets are laden with history and have been home to Pope Benedict XVI, world famous artist Raphael, the great Michelangelo Buonarroti, and countless others. The three main streets, or “borghi”, were named by Pope Pius IV in 1565. Borgo Pio (after himself), Borgo Angelico (after his birth name “Angelo”), and Borgo Vittorio (after the victory over Lepanto). Nowadays, this area is often graced with the presence of Cardinals, Swiss Guards, and even Pope Francis from time to time! This lively, little zone is nestled between Prati, Trastevere, the Tevere, Castel Sant’Angelo, and Vatican City, of course. The most evident border is marked by a tall, medieval wall. This covered corridor served as a hidden, fortified escape route from the Vatican to Castel Sant’Angelo. Pope Clement VII put it to use when he was forced to run for safety in 1527. Unfortunately, running in full Pope garb was not a simple task, so he was forced to take quick, tiny steps, hence the name of the wall: “Il Passetto,” or “little step. HOME FEATURES SEE ROME ATTRACTIONS NEIGHBOURHOODS OF ROME VISIT ROME WITH KIDS ROME UNDERGROUND INSIDER ACTIVITIES&TOURS COOKING CLASSES STREETS OF ROME WEEKEND GETAWAY FROM ROME ROMA PASS STAY BOOK YOUR HOTEL STAYING IN ROME BUDGET HOTELS LUGGAGE STORAGE IN ROME CAR RENTAL SERVICE MOVE TO ROME FIND YOUR AREA FIND YOUR APARTMENT WORK & STUDY IN ROME MOVING TO ROME ITALIAN LANGUAGE SCHOOLS STUDY ABROAD STUDENTS F.A.Q. MISCELLANEOUS HOT TOPICS FREE THINGS TO DO IN ROME BEST APPS FOR FOREIGNERS IN ROME INTERVIEWS A LIFE ROMANTIC EVENTS EVENTS CALENDAR EXHIBITIONS NIGHTLIFE & APERITIVO MUSIC EVENTS & CONCERTS PERFORMANCES / THEATRE CINEMA FESTIVALS & MOVIES FASHION SHOWS & EVENTS MARKETS AND WINE & FOOD EVENTS SPORT ROME SUMMER FESTIVALS CULTURE ART EXHIBITIONS PERFORMANCES / THEATRE MUSEUMS CONTEMPORARY ART GALLERIES ROME THROUGH THE ARTIST MUSIC & THEATRE MUSIC EVENTS & CONCERTS CLASSICAL MUSIC THE OPERA SCENE THEATRE GUIDE ROME SUMMER FESTIVALS ROCK & INDIE VENUES JAZZ & BLUES VENUES CINEMA ORIGINAL LANGUAGE MOVIES CINEPHILE CINEMA FESTIVALS & MOVIES LITERATURE BOOKSHOPS LIBRARIES BOOKS FOR ITALOPHILES FOOD RESTAURANTS BREAKFAST & BRUNCH BURGERS FOOD DELIVERY FOOD & WINE STORES INTERNATIONAL & ETHNIC FOOD GELATO PIZZA SEAFOOD VEGAN & VEGETARIAN NIGHTLIFE DRINKING IN ROME: BARS & CLUBS BEST BARS IN ROME BEST BARS FOR APERITIVO BEST CLUBS FOR DANCING BEST MIXOLOGY / COCKTAIL BARS SUMMER HANGOUTS BEST ROOFTOPS GAY ROME GUIDE IRISH PUBS WINE BARS LIFESTYLE SHOPPING SHOP ITALIAN SHOPS IN ROME BEST OF BOUTIQUES GUIDE VINTAGE SHOPS WELLNESS & BEAUTY HEALTH & BEAUTY HOTSPOTS DAY SPAS GUIDE YOGA & PILATES GYMS HAIR SALONS OUTDOOR POOLS HEALTH ENGLISH SPEAKING DOCTORS HOTELS PLAN YOUR TRIP COLOSSEUM TOURS VATICAN TOURS PRIVATE TOURS & DAY TRIPS LOCAL EXPERIENCES AIRPORT TRANSFERS TICKETS GUIDE TO ROME CUSTOM TRAVEL PLANNING CURRENT ISSUE ROMEING MAGAZINE ARCHIVE DISTRIBUTION SUBSCRIPTION MI.MAG ADVERTISE SERVICES CLASSIFIEDS BROWSE ADS PLACE AD VIEW CATEGORIES NEWSLETTER ROMEING MAGAZINE SUBSCRIPTION VISA APPLICATION AFFILIATE PROGRAM CONTACT US LOG IN   Restaurants in Prati-Flaminio, Features, Neighbourhoods of Rome6 December 2015 The Borgo District Of Rome by April Nicole The exhibition brings to Rome the pick of the Toulouse-Lautrec Collection at the Budapest Museum of Fine Arts Things to do in Rome’s Borgo Neighborhood Welcome to Borgo, Rome’s 14th neighborhood! These cobblestone streets are laden with history and have been home to Pope Benedict XVI, world famous artist Raphael, the great Michelangelo Buonarroti, and countless others. The three main streets, or “borghi”, were named by Pope Pius IV in 1565. Borgo Pio (after himself), Borgo Angelico (after his birth name “Angelo”), and Borgo Vittorio (after the victory over Lepanto). Nowadays, this area is often graced with the presence of Cardinals, Swiss Guards, and even Pope Francis from time to time! This lively, little zone is nestled between Prati, Trastevere, the Tevere, Castel Sant’Angelo, and Vatican City, of course. The most evident border is marked by a tall, medieval wall. This covered corridor served as a hidden, fortified escape route from the Vatican to Castel Sant’Angelo. Pope Clement VII put it to use when he was forced to run for safety in 1527. Unfortunately, running in full Pope garb was not a simple task, so he was forced to take quick, tiny steps, hence the name of the wall: “Il Passetto,” or “little step.”      Today, Borgo is filled with locals and tourists alike, and with the Jubilee Year kicking off on December 8th, the area is about to get even more lively!  Although tourist traps abound- (after all it’s the perfect place for visitors to stock up on souvenirs and relax after a Vatican visit) don’t let this deter you- there are some local haunts definitely worth checking out and we’ve got the inside scoop!